Status of small ruminant fasciolosis and diagnostic test evaluation at Haramaya town municipal abattoir, East Harrarghe Zone, Ethiopia

  • Abebayehu Tadesse
  • Juhar Usman
Keywords: Abattoir; Coprology; Fasciolosis; Prevalence; Risk factor; Small ruminants.

Abstract

A cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of fasciolosis and associated risk factors at Haramaya Municipal Abattoir was conducted from November 2017 to April 2018. Moreover, the direct financial loss due to liver condemnation
and evaluation of the sensitivity of direct sedimentation technique for detection of Fasciola eggs were performed. A total of 384 small ruminants comprising of 235 sheep and 149 goats were subjected to coprological and postmortem examination. An overall prevalence of 12.8% was found. Forty-four animals were positive for eggs of Fasciola with an overall prevalence of 11.5%. However, it was 14.1% (54/384) in the examination of the same animals exposed to postmortem examinations of fluke-infected livers. The prevalence of fasciolosis based on body condition score was 62.2%, 12.4%, and 4.1% in that order, in poor, medium, and good body condition groups and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). Other factors considered like, the monthly prevalence, species, age, and sex of the animals did not show significant differences (p>0.05). The prevalence of fasciolosis was highest in Haramaya (19.0%)
followed by Awaday (14.9%), Kersa (10.3%), Midhaga (8.1%), and the lowest prevalence was observed in Babile (5.8%), however, the difference in prevalence across the origin of the animals was not significant (p > 0.05). F. hepatica was a dominant 63.0 % (34/54) species identified followed by F. gigantica 20.4% (11/54) and 5.6% (3/54) and 11.1% (6/54) were due to mixed and immature flukes, respectively. Taking liver examination as the gold standard for diagnosis
of fasciolosis, the sensitivity of the direct sedimentation technique was found to be 81.5% and the specificity 100% with almost perfect agreement (k =0.89) between the two methods. The direct financial loss due to liver condemnation was estimated to be 46,318.5 (965 USD) Ethiopian birr per annum. In conclusion, Fasciola spp are important parasites affecting small ruminants in the study area. Control strategies targeted to the parasite and the intermediate hosts (snail) with particular emphasis on mature poorly conditioned
animals is recommended.

Published
2022-04-29
Section
Articles

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eISSN: 2221-5034
print ISSN: 1683-6324