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Parental and peer factors as predictors of cigarette smoking among secondary school adolescents in southwestern Nigeria
Cigarette smoking is becoming a life style among the in-school adolescents. Cigarette smokers are not only liable to die young but also constitute a waste of human resources to any nation, this is because, these young men and women are the future leaders of tomorrow of any nation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the parental and peer factors as predictors of cigarette smoking among secondary school adolescents in Southwestern, Nigeria. Descriptive research design of ex-post-facto type was used in the study. One thousand five hundred (1500) secondary school adolescents were selected from five different States (i.e. Ogun, Osun, Oyo, Lagos and Ondo States.) in South West, Nigeria. Purposive random sampling technique was used in selecting the participants. The respondents were measured with relevant adopted standardized instruments and the data obtained was analyzed using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) and multiple regression statistical analysis. Three research questions were raised and answered in the study. The result showed that students’ cigarette smoking is significantly correlated with parental factor (r = .831; p<.05) and peer factor (r= .712; p<.05), the independent variables when pulled together have significant effects on cigarette smoking among secondary school adolescents (R2 (adjusted) =.674) and each of the independent variables made a significant contribution to the prediction of cigarette smoking among secondary school adolescents. In term of magnitude of contribution, parental factors made the most significant contribution (Beta= .089; t= 2.113; p<0.05) to the prediction follow by peer factor (Beta= .088; t= 4.226; p<0.05). In view of these findings, the study stressed that the parents/guardians need to be trained on the need to adopt effective and efficient parenting styles as well as proper monitoring of the adolescents and adequate emotional support for them as this will help in reducing the problems of being misguided by their peers. The adolescent psychologists should always intensify their effort to organize seminars and workshops for the teachers, adolescents and other significant stakeholders in society on the consequences of cigarette smoking at a tender age.