The impact of climate change on household food security in the Bongo District of the Upper East Region of Ghana
The study determined the impact of climate change on household food security, investigated awareness level and identified coping strategies used to mitigate negative impact of climate change in the Bongo District with emphasis on women. It was a cross-sectional survey conducted in four purposively selected farming communities in the District in the Upper East Region of Ghana. A sample size of 246 women participated in the study. Using a structured questionnaire, data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics of the participants, awareness of climate change, food consumption patterns, coping strategies and household food security. Data on rainfall and temperature for the past 30 years period in the District were obtained from the Ghana Meteorological Service. Crop yields data over a period of 21 years in the District was also obtained from the Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MOFA). The results revealed that rainfall in the Bongo District has been decreasing at - 0.3 mm per annum and maximum temperature has been increasing at 0.005 °C. More than half (62.6%) of the participants were aware of climate change in their communities. Majority (89.4%) of the participants reduced the quality and quantity of diets as coping strategy method during food shortage periods and almost all (97.2%) of the households were food insecure. Participants who reported to have observed decrease in rainfall were more likely to be food insecure (OR = 3.96; CI = 0.56 – 27.81). Participants were aware of climate change and employed reduction in the quality and quantity of diet as coping mechanism. Almost all households were food insecure. There is the need to intensify climate resistant agriculture technology such as irrigation methods to offset the negative impact of climate change on food security in the District.