Production of Gypsum from Clamshells and Waste Acid Recovered from End-of-Life Lead Acid Batteries
Gypsum exists in the Dihydrate (CaSO4 2H2O), Hemihydrate (CaSO4. ½H2O) and the Anhydrite (CaSO4) forms. The exploitation of the natural rock form deposit of gypsum is on the increase, necessitating the need to find alternative and efficient sources of gypsum so as to sustain all the industries dependent on gypsum as raw material. This work investigates the production of gypsum from clamshells and waste sulphuric acid from end-of-life car batteries. Clamshells obtained from the Volta Region of Ghana were calcined at a temperature of about 1000 ˚C with a view of producing CaO which was pulverised to particle size of 96 % passing 106 μm. Samples of the Pulverised Clam Shells (PCS) were then reacted with five different concentrations of the Waste Battery Acid (WBA). The reaction was observed to be very exothermic; a temperature of 101 ˚C was obtained for the 6.5 M concentration of WBA. The resulting mixture was filtered and an XRD analysis was performed on the oven dried residue to ascertain its composition. The findings from the work revealed that 100 g of pulverised clam shells produced an average of 58.08 g of calcined product and 134 g of gypsum. Peaks of SiO2 and CaCO3 in the XRD diffractogram of the gypsum indicated that the reaction between PCS and WBA was incomplete. Conclusively, the results from the XRD analysis showed peaks of the three forms of gypsum that was successfully produced.
Keywords: Net Present Value; Internal Rate of Return; Sensitivity Analysis; Risk Analysis