Highland Medical Research Journal

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Morbidity and mortality pattern of children with sickle cell anaemia in Jos, North Central Nigeria: a single institutional study.

Edache S. Okpe, Udochukwu M. Diala, David Shwe, Ruth O. Adah, Gabriel Ogbu, Augustine O. Ebonyi, A.O.D. Ofakunrin, Seline N. Okolo


Background: The burden of Non-communicable Diseases (NCDs) in the Tropics is enormous. Sickle Cell Anaemia (SCA) is the most prevalent NCD in Nigerian children. There is a paucity of data on morbidity and mortality pattern of SCA patients in North Central Nigeria. We determined the morbidity and mortality pattern of children with SCA in a teaching hospital.
Methods: This was a descriptive study of consecutive admissions of children with SCA between January and December 2015, whose parents gave consent. The patients' biodata, age at diagnosis of SCA, admission diagnosis, course of management and outcome were among data collected in a proforma and analysed using descriptive statistics.
Results: Sickle Cell Anaemia accounted for 199 out of 1224 Paediatric admissions (16.8%) during the study period. The mean age at diagnosis of SCA was 23± 8 months, and 70% of the SCA patients were 10 years old or younger. Infections (36.2%), severe anaemia (29.7%) and vaso-occlusive crisis (22.1%) were the commonest indications for admission, while cerebrovascular accidents (30%), severe anaemia (30%) and acute chest syndrome (20%) were the leading causes of mortality.
Conclusion: Institution of Early Infant Diagnosis, Public enlightenment, coupled with staff training and improvement in National Blood Transfusion Services are advocated to reduce the high morbidity and mortality from SCA.

Key words: Sickle Cell Anaemia, Morbidity, Mortality, Comprehensive care.

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