Manuscript Submission
Only electronic form of Manuscripts submitted online at Each manuscript submission should designate one corresponding author and all contributing authors. Authorship must be limited to those who have contributed substantially to the design of the study, analysis of the data, and writing of the article. Authors must disclose any potential financial or ethical conflicts of interest regarding the contents of the submission. The journal accepts no responsibility for manuscripts that are lost or destroyed through electronic or wrong information.

Peer review process
All manuscripts are reviewed by Editorial Board members before being sent for peer review. Initial editorial reviews usually are completed within one weeks of manuscript submission. Once the Editorial Board review is complete, manuscripts will be either forwarded on to peer review or rejected. Before a manuscript is sent for peer review, it is processed through Cross Check (, a plagiarism screening service.
The time required for review of revised manuscripts is usually four weeks from the time of submission. Decisions on acceptance or rejection will be communicated only by e-mail to the corresponding author. The assigned manuscript number will allow authors to view the status of their manuscripts through each step of the process.
Copyright. On acceptance of a manuscript, all authors must sign and return the Copyright Disclosure Form. Complete, sign, and fax the form to the Editorial Office at Failure to submit completed signature forms will delay publication.

Financial Disclosure
Any author who has a financial involvement with any organization or entity with a financial interest in or in financial competition with the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscript should disclose that affiliation. All authors should prepare a statement revealing any such financial affiliations and include it with the manuscript submission. The manuscript should also clearly identify the financial support of the research described in the currently submitted manuscript.

Human Research
All human studies must contain a statement within the Patients and Methods section indicating that the study has been approved by an institutional review board and that participants have signed written informed consent or that the institutional review board has waived the need for informed consent. Where necessary, a copy of the approval by the institutional review board would be demanded.

Registration of Clinical Trials
The journal requires registration for all clinical trials submitted for publication. Trials that start enrollment after July 1, 2008, should be registered before starting patient enrollment. Clinical trials will need to be registered in 1 of the 5 registries accepted by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICJME) or in any of the primary registries that participate in the WHO International Clinical Trial Registry Platform. For additional information, please see

Manuscript Preparation
Authors should prepare manuscripts in accordance with the “Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals,” developed by the ICJME (Ann Intern Med. 1997;126:36-47 or Reports of randomized controlled trials should include the CONSORT flow diagram (Ann Intern Med. 2001;134: 657-662). Specific requirements for the Highland Medical Research Journal are as below:
The manuscript, which should be typed in 12-point type and double-spaced throughout using Times New Roman , should be arranged as follows: (1) title page, (2) abstract, (3) alphabetical list of abbreviations used at least 3 times in the body of the manuscript (exclusive of abstract, figures, and tables) and their expansions, (4) text with appropriate headings and conclusion, (5) acknowledgments, (6) references, (7) legends, (8) tables (with alphabetical list of all abbreviations and their expansions as a footnote), and (9) illustrations (with separate alphabetical list of abbreviations and their expansion in legend). Manuscript pages should be numbered consecutively and labeled with the last name of the first author. The text portion of the manuscript should be saved using a word-processing program, such as a .doc or .rtf file format.
Tables should be created using your word processor's table function. Tables can be placed at the end of your manuscript document or saved as separate files.
Line art, including graphs and algorithms (flow charts), should be created and submitted in PowerPoint or Adobe Illustrator (.eps format). Halftone and color images should be saved in Photoshop in .jpg, .gif, or .tiff format at 300 dpi. Figures should not be inserted or embedded into the manuscript document; rather, they should be saved and uploaded as separate files.

Title Page
Title: Formulate a title that reflects the content of the article. Avoid abbreviations, declarative statements, questions, and titles that tantalize but do not inform readers.
Authors: Include first names and middle initials, academic degrees, departmental affiliations and institutions, and current departmental and institutional affiliations for authors who have relocated since completion of the study.
Financial support and disclosure: List all financial and material support for the research and work described in the manuscript (eg, grant number and funding agency for the project, an individual author, or both). List each author's affiliations or financial involvement (defined above) with any organization or entity with a financial interest in the subject matter discussed in the manuscript.
Reprints and correspondence: Include name, address, and e-mail address of author to whom postpublication correspondence and reprint requests should be addressed.

Abstracts should be no more than 250 words. For Original Articles: Organize abstract in a structured format, with the following headings: Objective, Patients and Methods, Results, and Conclusion. Ensure that information in each section of the abstract is in the corresponding section of the text. Four to six keywords relevant to the article should be provided as these help with sub-heading indexing.

Express measurements in conventional units, giving conversion factor to SI units on first mention. Give exact P values, even if they are non-significant. Round P values to 2 digits; if the first 2 numbers after the decimal point are zeroes, then round to 3 digits. The lowest P value we report is P<.0001.
Avoid specialized jargon and abbreviations; abbreviate a term only if it is used at least 3 times in text (exclusive of abstract, tables, and figures) and define at first mention. Use generic names for drugs and equipment. If you think it important to use a brand name, provide name of manufacturer and city and state of manufacture in parenthesis.
Do not use footnotes within the text. For genetic nomenclature, please follow the recommendations of the Human Genome Organisation. Approved gene symbols, descriptions, and older aliases can be searched at
For gene mutations, please see the HGVS Web site (at www. (use the Recommendations Including Nomenclature Guidel ines l ink) or

The corresponding author should provide assurance in writing that permission has been obtained from those acknowledged.

Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of their references and for their complete and accurate citation in the text. Cite references, figures, and tables consecutively as they appear in the text; use superscript numerals for text citations. Tables and Figures (including Tables and Figures) are considered part of text and so citations are numbered consecutively with those in text. Example: If Table 1 contains references, and the reference number in the text before citation of Table 1 is 5, a reference in Table 1 would become reference 6; the next reference cited in manuscript after table call-out would be cited as
reference 7.
Cite personal communications (specify oral or written) and unpublished data parenthetically in the text and include date (do not list in references). Include assurance that those named or quoted have provided permission to be identified and cited in the context of the article.
In the reference list, include names and initials of all authors (if more than 6, list 3 followed by “et al”), the title, source (journal abbreviations should conform to those in Index Medicus), year, volume, issue, and expanded page ranges. For appropriate reference style, see examples below:
Journals (Print): Rainier S, Thomas D, Tokarz D, et al. Myofibrillogenesis regulator 1 gene mut a t i ons c aus e p a r ox y sma l dy s t oni c  choreoathetosis. Arch Neurol. 2004;6:1025-1029.
Journal s (Online) : Duchin JS. Can preparedness for biologic terrorism save us from pertussis? Arch PediatrAdolesc Med. 2004;158:106- 107. full/158/2/106.Accessed June 1, 2004.
Journals (online with DOI): Kitajima TS, Kawashima SA, Watanabe Y. The conserved kinetochore protein shugoshin protects centromeric cohesion during meiosis. Nature. 2004;427:510-517. doi:10,1038/nature02312.
Chapter in a book: Bithell TC.Hereditary coagulation disorders. In: Lee GR, Bithell TC, Foerster J, Athens JW, Lukens JN, eds. Wintrobe's Clinical Hematology. Vol 2. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lea & Febiger; 1993:1422-1472.
Book: Guyton AC. Textbook of Medical hysiology. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders Co; 1991:255-262.
Website: International Society for Infectious Diseases. ProMED- mail Web site. www.promed Accessed April 29, 2004.

Number tables consecutively (with Arabic numerals) in the order of their citation in the text. Type all tabular material double-spaced; each table should be on a separate page. Provide a title for each table; define all abbreviations used in each table in a footnote. Superscripted lowercase letters (a-z) should be used for table footnotes. Do not submit tables as images.

Cite all illustrations in the text and number them (with Arabic numerals) in the order of their appearance. Provide a legend for each figure as part of the manuscript document. Include definitions of any abbreviations that appear on the figure, along with any permissions noted, and an appropriate citation. For photomicrographs, specify stain and original magnification. For any illustration with a recognizable patient, submit a release form signed by the patient. Do not trim illustrations or assemble component parts.
Line art, including graphs and algorithms (flow charts), should be created in PowerPoint or Adobe Illustrator (.eps format).
Halftone and color images should be saved in Photoshop in .jpg, .gif, or .tiff format at 300 dpi.
Illustrations borrowed from a source not copyrighted by Journal Managers require permission and credit line information from the publisher. See “Permissions” below.

Use of previously published graphic and tabular material is strongly discouraged. Authors are responsible for obtaining permission for reuse of material (illustrations, tables, or lengthy quotes) from other sources. The preferred and quickest method for obtaining permission is via the Copyright Clearance Center. Alternatively, you may utilize our Permission Request Form.
Permission letters from the copyright holder of the original source (along with complete bibliographic information) must be submitted with the manuscript. Failure to provide all appropriate permissions will delay publication or may necessitate the manuscript being rejected.

Authors are responsible for ensuring the following:
Data (including percentages) are accurate and consistent with those cited in the manuscript.
Permission from the original publisher is obtained and sent to the journal office for any borrowed material. The works from which figures or tables are borrowed should be cited in the reference list. A credit line should be added to the figure legend or after the table footnotes in the following format: “From Title of Journal, with permission.”
All figures should be submitted in a format (ideally in the native program) that allows them to be resized or otherwise manipulated if necessary for legibility. Each table or figure should be on a separate page and tables should be double-spaced.
Supplemental figures and tables meet the same formatting specification as those for the print journal. For example, three-dimensional figures are not acceptable, hatching should be avoided on bar graphs, and pie charts are not acceptable. Do not submit tables as
A title for each table and a legend for each figure are provided and all abbreviations are expanded in the table footnote or figure legend.

The abstracts of articles of this journal are indexed by Googl e Scholar, African Journals Online ( and African Index Medicus (AIM).

Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 1596-2407