Prevalence and type of haematological malignancies among adults in a tertiary hospital in Jos-Nigeria: a sixteen-year retrospective analysis
Background: Global cancer statistics in Nigeria estimated increasing cancer occurrence per year with many unreported cases. Information regarding haematologic malignancies epidemiology in Jos is limited. This study sought to determine the prevalence, pattern and distribution of haematologic malignancies among adults in Jos, Nigeria in a 16 year period.
Methods: Retrospective review of adults with haematologic malignancies diagnoses by bone marrow aspiration cytology or histology of tissue biopsies between 2000 and 2015 at the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos-Nigeria was conducted. Socio-demographic parameters and cytological/histologic diagnoses were extracted from the cancer register.
Results: A total of 1706 cases of cancers were diagnosed during this period. Of these, 330 cases were haematologic malignancies. The prevalence of haematologic malignancies among the adult patient population was 19.3% with a male (56.7%) dominance. Leukaemia occurred the most (64.5%) followed by lymphoma (30%) and multiple myeloma (5.4%). Chronic leukaemia occurred more frequently than acute leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was more common than Hodgkin's lymphoma. The mean ±SD were 44±17 years for leukaemia and 43±15 years for lymphoma. The haematologic malignancies showed an increasing pattern of occurrence.
Conclusion: This occurrence of haematologic malignancies among adult patients with cancer from this Centre is high. Evidence of increasing occurrence was observed. Measures targeted at improved diagnosis and care are advocated. Future studies to evaluate the genetic and environmental risk factors associated with haematologic malignancies development from this region are recommended.
Keywords: Haematologic malignancies, Prevalence, Pattern, Adults, Jos, Nigeria.