Innovative Strategies for Control of Coffee Insect Pests in Tanzania: A Review
AbstractCoffee insect pests are one of the major factors which affect coffee production and quality. globally, coffee insect pests are estimated to cause losses of about 13%. However in Africa, yield losses can be much higher, particularly where Arabica and Robusta coffee are grown for a long time. In Tanzania the major insect pests are white coffee stem borer (Monochamus leuconatus), coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei), Antestia bugs (Antestiopsis spp), leaf miner (Leucoptera spp), green scale (Coccus spp) and mealy bugs (Planococcus kenyae). Minor important pests including yellow headed borer (Dirphya nigricornis), thrips (Diarthrothrips coffeae) and berry moth (Prophants
smaragdina) are reported to vary in crop losses caused. For decades industrial chemicals have been used to control the prevailing coffee insect-pests. But uses of industrial chemicals have been reported to have negative implications to the environment, animals and human health. In the recent years worldwide, efforts have been focused to researching on the sustainable control measures for coffee insect pests. For a period of over ten years Tanzania Coffee Research Institute (TaCRI) has been developing ecologically and environmentally sustainable coffee insect-pests control measures which include; use of bio pesticides, traps, parasites, attractants and biological agents. These technologies are progressively adopted by coffee farmers in the country. The potential of these innovative insect pests control measures and their impacts on management of coffee insect pests are discussed in this review paper.