Impacts of Urban Development Pressure on Coastal Local Communities in Tanzania: A Case Study of Ununio, Kaole and Kilwa-Masoko Settlements
The study examined the socio-economic and cultural impacts of urbandevelopment pressure on the lives of coastal local communities in Tanzania, in linewith the implementation of basic Human Rights, and the National Land and HumanSettlement Development Policy. It has suggested measures to manage or preventthe adverse impacts and enhance beneficial impacts. Social Impact Assessment(SIA) principles were employed to study the social, economic and cultural impactsof urban development pressure on coastal local communities of Kaole, Ununio andKilwa-Masoko. Qualitative data was collected from 12 informants and 6 focusgroups, while quantitative data was collected from 150 heads of household andtheir spouses using a semi-structured questionnaire. Data analysis was done usingthe SPSS computer software. It was found out that there were more negativeimpacts than positive ones. Positive impacts included; expanded market for goods,water supply, electric supply, presence of schools, and cultural harmonization.Negative impacts included: insecurity over land, depeasantisation, low incomes dueto lack of integration into respective urban areas, food insecurity, poor access tosea resources, unfair compensation for loss of land, discrimination in urbanplanning and poor access to social services. These could be regarded as short termimpacts. The vulnerability of local coastal people to poverty was the long termimpact. It is recommended that land allocation processes should implement HumanRights and the National Land and Human Settlement Development Policy properlyso as to bring more positive impacts.
Key words: development pressure, urban development, implementing human rightsin Tanzania, poverty alleviation in Tanzania, policies and development