The effectiveness of technology integration modelling in improving the adoption of educational technology in out-of-school time

  • Thadei Kiwango


This study tested the effectiveness of proposed technology integration model in improving educational technology adoption in Out-of-School Time (OST) learning in primary schools. A quasi-experimental design was adopted, involving experimental and control groups. The model was experimented in Meru District Council, Arusha Region, and reached some 310 pupils in six (6) day schools, their parents, five (5) mathematics teachers and three (3) head teachers. The experiment ran for three months consecutively. Data was collected through digital Video Disks (DVDs), DVD Players and mobile phones. Other tools were home works handbooks, answer booklets and a list of perceived best practices. Participating pupils were availed with necessary materials before pupils in the experimental and control groups were examined under different practices. Specifically, the experimental group was subjected to the proposed model whereas the control group was treated under traditional practices. Then, the two groups were compared in relation to extent they used the developed technology. This primarily achieved by examining the response of pupils to the given home assignments. The Mann-Whitney test attested a statistically significant use of educational technology in favour of the experimental group (U=7916, N1=167, N2=143, p (0) <0.05). This suggests acceptance of the alternative hypothesis at 95% confidence level, implying that the use of the proposed model improved the actual use of educational technology among the learners. It is thus recommended that the government should support technology integration through by building the capacity of schools and other practitioners for effective integration of OST technology in primary schools in the country. Moreover, extensive studies need to be carried out to assess the applicability of the proposed model in other settings, especially in post-primary educational practices.


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eISSN: 1597-4316