Toxicity potentials and novelty-induced behavior effects of JEDDY decoction
AbstractJEDDY decoction, a plant medicine, is prepared by the “Village Chemist” of Obafemi Awolowo University in Nigeria for the treatment of hemorrhoids, pile, flatulence, abdominal distention, indigestion and colic. It is a popular OTC herbal medicine, available in Nigeria especially in the South-west. Hence, the main objective of the research was to carry out scientific studies on its toxicity potentials as well as possible central effects. Twenty four albino rats of both sexes were obtained and divided into four groups (n=6 per group) for the administration of three dose levels of JEDDY decoction and the vehicle. In sub-chronic toxicity test, JEDDY decoction was administered orally to rats at daily doses of 334, 667 and 1334 ìl/kg/day/30 days. Generally, their behavioral, mortality, biochemical and histopathological outcomes were evaluated. Noveltyinduced behavior (NIB) was observed on both day 1 and day 30 of administration of JEDDY decoction and the vehicle. The animals were sacrificed on day 30 after the NIB scoring and blood sample was obtained for biochemical assays for triglycerides, cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) using the serum. These biochemical assays were also carried out on the liver obtained from rats treated with both JEDDY decoction and the vehicle, respectively. ANOVA, followed by Post hoc analysis using student Newman Keuls test was used in establishing significant levels for all the data obtained statistically. The sub-chronic administration of JEDDY decoction revealed a dose-dependent decrease in the body weight of the treated groups but the percentage change was statistically not significant when compared with the control. The sub-chronic administration at all the three dose levels revealed no significant effect on locomotion and rearing activities when compared with the control. Acute administration of JEDDY decoction at the three dose levels (344, 667 and 1334 ìl/kg/30 days, p.o.) also revealed no significant effects on locomotion activities when compared with the control but the ANOVA revealed that there was a significant decrease in grooming activities at the dose of 667 ìl/kg only when compared with the control. Biochemical analysis showed that there was a significant decrease on triglyceride and cholesterol level due to JEDDY decoction administration when compared with the control. Furthermore, biochemical analysis showed that sub-chronic administration of JEDDY decoction caused no significant effect on ALT, AST and ALP in rats when compared with the control. Thus, oral acute and sub-chronic administration of JEDDY decoction had no significant potential toxicity effect in rats.
Keywords: JEDDY decoction, herbal, toxicity, grooming, behavior.
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