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Evaluating coagulant activity of locally available <i>Syzygium cumini</i>, <i>Artocarpus heterophyllus</i> and <i>Moringa oleifera</i> for treatment of community drinking water, Uganda

Robert Natumanya
James Okot-Okumu


Most rural communities in Africa are without access to treated water and therefore use the readily available unsafe water sources exposing them to water borne diseases. This calls for the need for action to search for affordable and simple solutions. This research therefore examined the effectiveness of readily available natural coagulants Syzygium cumini (Javaplum), Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit) and Moringa oleifera (Moringa) using ‘Jar Test’. Water turbidity and coliforms removal from community drinking water by seeds extracts of natural coagulants was examined. Turbidity removal increased with coagulants concentration in (solvents extracts water and NaCl). Optimal turbidity removal occurred at 40 mg/l coagulant concentration with low and medium turbidity raw water for both solvents extracts and at 60 mg/l for Na Cl extract with high turbidity water. Compared to alum [KAl (SO4)2.12(H2O)], the turbidity removal effectiveness was: alum>Moringa oleifera>Artocarpus heterophyllus>Syzygium cumini, except for 1MNaCl extract where it was: alum>Artocarpus heterophyllus>Moringa oleifera >Syzygium cumini.Optimal turbidity removal was: Moringa oleifera 97.7%, Artocarpus heterophyllus 95.8% and Syzygium cumini 94.1%. The seed extracts were also effective as water disinfectants (Moringa>Jackfruit>Java plum). The use of Jackfruit and Java plum and Moringa, for water treatment is recommended.

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Keywords: Coagulant activity, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Moringa oleifera, Syzygium cumini, community drinking water treatment, turbidity removal