Toxicity, cytotoxicity and biological activities of seeds of Carapa procera (DC), a native oil tree
Carapa procera is a native tree which seeds are intensively used for oil extraction. So this study deals with the identification of secondary metabolites, the toxicity and cytotoxicity of C. procera hydroalcohol extracts and their estrogenic and androgenic activities. The chemical constituents of C. procera extracts were determined by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) methods. The toxicity and cytotoxicity were respectively evaluated by the OECD Guideline 425 “Up and Down procedure” (UDP) and the brine shrimp lethality test. Estrogenic and androgenic activities were evaluated by uterotrophic and Hershberger tests and also by in vitro tests, with the yeast assay and MVLN luceferase assay. The MeOH/H2O extracts of C. procera seeds revealed the presence of steroidal glycosides, triterpene, flavonoids and polyphenols. The DCM fraction revealed the presence of triterpene esters & steroid and carotenoids. The MeOH/H2O has, by in vivo tests, slight toxic effects with mice and shows a lethal effect against the crustacean larvae by in vitro test. The extracts of C. procera seeds also show, by in vivo and in vitro tests an estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities. The results show with the presence of flavonoids, polyphenols and glycosides steroids estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities. The seeds of C. procera contain some phytochemicals, which can disrupt or reinforce endocrine function.
Keywords: Carapa procera, native oil tree, seeds, toxicity, estrogenic, antiandrogenic