Evaluation of immunoglobulin classes (IgA, IgG and IgM) levels and complement fixation activity in HIV infected subjects
AbstractThe study was designed to evaluate the immunoglobulin A, G and M levels and complement fixation activity in HIV infected participants, who were not administered antiretroviral therapy (ART). Eighty (80) HIV infected participants, aged between 15 – 55 years (38 ±10 years), were recruited for the study. Forty five (45) of the participants were classified as symptomatic HIV (stage ii), while the remaining 35 were classified as
asymptomatic HIV (stage i). Similarly, 40 seronegative participants served as control. Blood samples were collected from the participants for the determination of HIV status by immunochromatography, HIV confirmation by Western blot, determination of immunoglobulin levels by immunoturbidimetry, and complement activity by complement fixation test. The IgG and IgA were significantly increased in symptomatic HIV infection compared with asymptomatic HIV infection (p<0.05). However, the value of IgM in asymptomatic and symptomatic HIV infected participants were similar (p>0.05). The complement fixation activities decreased in HIV infected patients compared with the values in HIV seronegatives. The increase in IgA concentration with HIV infected participants may suggest existence of mucosal infections, while the
increase in IgG concentration in HIV infected participants may suggest evidence of increased opportunistic infection requiring IgG response. The low level of complement activity in HIV infected participants may
predispose individuals with HIV infection to disease commonly controlled through immunological activity of the complement.
Keywords: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG and IgM), complements.
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