The effect of Yoyo bitters on the pharmacokinetics of single oral dose paracetamol tablet in human volunteers

  • BV Kumdi
  • JA Kolawole


Paracetamol (Tylenol, acetaminophen) and Yoyo bitters (a liquid oral herbal preparation) are known prescriptive drugs and widely available to ¡§patients¡¨. They are taken individually or as combination therapy at
slightest signs/symptoms of fever in Nigeria. The pharmacokinetics of oral single dose paracetamol (1000 mg tablet), was evaluated in eight healthy male volunteers. Experiment was carried out in three phases. In the 1st
phase, only oral paracetamol tablet was administered to subjects, while in the 2nd phase, subjects were administered paracetamol at the same time with Yoyo bitters and in the 3rd phase, (delayed protocol) the subjects were administered paracetamol after taking Yoyo bitters for 3 days. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for paracetamol using  spectrophotometric method. The values obtained for the pharmacokinetics
parameters when paracetamol was administered alone falls within previously reported values. Yoyo bitters did not statistically (P>0.05) affect the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol when administered concurrently with
Yoyo bitters. However when administered after three days of Yoyo bitters administration, there was statistically significant (P<0.05) increase in AUC0-¡Û and t1/2£] while there was significant (P<0.05) decrease in
K£] ƒnand Cl/F.

Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 1997-342X
print ISSN: 1991-8631