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International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences

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Antimicrobial activity of the leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera and Jatropha curcas on pathogenic bacteria

SI Okorondu, CO Akujobi, JN Okorondu, SO Anyado-Nwadike

Abstract


This study evaluates the antimicrobial activity of the leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera and Jatropha curcas against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Different concentrations of the extracts were subjected to these organisms in which Moringa oleifera showed a higher zone of inhibition on Staphylococcus aureus (2.8 cm) while on E. coli (2.4 cm) while Jatropha curcas showed a higher zone of inhibition on E. coli (2.6 cm) while on S. aureus (1.80 cm). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Moringa oleifera extract on E. coli and S. aureus were 0.250 mg/ml and 0.125 mg/ml respectively while MIC of Jatropha curcas extract on test organisms was 0.125 mg/ml. The quantitative phytochemical screening in g/kg revealed the presence of flavonoid 36 and 21, alkaloids 92 and 39, tannins 7.4 and 5.6, saponins 115.0 and 53.5, cyanogenic glycosides 8.4 and 14.5 for M. oleifera and J. curcas respectively. The observed  antimicrobial properties could be due to the presence of these bioactive compounds and further substantiates the use of Moringa oleifera and Jatropha curcas leaf extracts in medicine. The extracts in correct doses can successfully be used in vivo to inhibit and eventually kill the test bacteria used in this study. © 2013 International Formulae Group. All rights reserved.


Keywords: Moringa oleifera, Jatropha curcas, phytochemicals, bacteria, antimicrobial.




http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ijbcs.v7i1.16
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