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Factors affecting sustainable animal trypanosomosis control in parts of Kaduna State, Nigeria

Hudu Okankhamame Osue
Felix Apeh. Godwin Lawani
Chukwuemeka Ikechukwu Njoku


This study examined the factors affecting sustainable trypanosomiasis control in parts of Kaduna State within the sub-humid savannah ecological zone of Nigeria. Focus group discussions were held with herdsmen and livestock owners (n=85). Questionnaire was administered to participants (n=25) and key-informants (n=5) were interviewed. Most respondents (80%) were Fulani by tribe who could read and write Hausa in Arabic text (ajami). Over 70% were permanent residents practicing transhumant animal husbandry. Animal trypanosomiasis (sammoré), liverfluke (chiwon hanta), worm infestations (helminthosis), and foot and mouth disease (chiwon kafa baki) in Hausa and “boru” in Fulfulde were ranked in decreasing order of important livestock diseases mentioned. A trypanocide (in sachet) identified to be Berenil® was administered by livestock farmers themselves. Many livestock owners and some households had lost various numbers of cattle and herds because of animal trypanosomosis. Tsetse flies (kudan tsando) were said to be very common, yet many could not differentiate it from other haematophagous biting flies. During dry season, when forage and water shortage is imminent, there is migration to southern parts of  Nigeria. Annual herd movement to rangelands in nearby Bauchi State was due to perceived increased tsetse fly population in wet season. In addition, about 80% of arable land was used for crop cultivation. More awareness and preference for pour-on and aerial spraying were higher than the use of traps, target or screens. Rearing of trypanotolerant breeds and zero grazing was never practiced. A private-public partnership in tsetse and animal trypanosomosis control using commercially available trypanocides and insecticide is feasible and should be effectively explored. Any sustainable control strategy envisaged should recognize the level of awareness of the disease and vectors and willingness of grassroots stakeholders to participate and adapt the control methods.

Keywords: Awareness, livestock, indigenous knowledge, socio-economics, trypanosomosis control, tsetse fly