Phytochemical analysis of Tephrosia vogelii (fish poison bean)
This work was carried out to determine the chemical constituents of Tephrosia vogelii (Fish poison bean), in order to test the extracts of the plant for use as fish tranquilizer. Fresh samples of T. vogelii were collected separately, air-dried for 21 days and oven-dried at 60o C for 3-4 hours to constant weight. The dried samples were pulverized using an electric kitchen blender and stored in air-tight bottles for subsequent use. Aqueous extracts of each of the stored samples of T. vogelii were prepared by dissolving 200 g of each sample in a 2.5 litre flat bottom flask containing 1 litre of de-ionized water. The mixture was properly shaken, allowed to stand for 24 hours and filtered using muslin cloth and then by suction filtration. Various quantities of the mixtures were drawn to perform the tests for alkaloids, saponins, tannins, anthroquinones, and so on, using standard methods described by Harbone, Trease and Evans. The results of this study revealed that tannins, saponins, alkaloids and phenols were present in both leaf and bark extracts, flavonoids and glycosides were present in the leaf only while phlobatannnnins occurred only in the bark.
Keywords: Plant, chemicals, constituents, Tephrosia vogelii, rotenoids, fish poison bean, Tranquilizer