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Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis production and evaluation of bio-diesel from Jatropha, neem and rubber seeds
Optimization of process parameters for producing biodiesel from Jatropha carcus, Azadirachta indica and hevea brasiliensis seed oils using homogeneous and heterogeneous catalyst were investigated. Temperature and methanol characteristics (oil molar ratio; catalyst type, concentration and agitation) controlled the ester convers-ion. A single-step and two-step trans-esterification were used to produce biodiesel from free fatty acid rubber, jatropha and neem seed oils. The maximum yields of ester from jatropha, neem and rubber oils were respective-ly 98.4, 94.6 and 92.8 % by homogeneous catalysis, and 79.0, 72.0 and 70.2 % by heterogeneous catalysis. While the homogeneous catalysis route produced higher biodiesel yields, the heterogeneous catalyst method produced biodiesel of lower ester content. The fuel properties of biodiesels and blends were analysed quantitati-vely, and the biodiesel produced by homogeneous catalysis compared favourably with conventional diesel fuel.