International Journal of Medicine and Health Development is a peer reviewed journal with the following purposes:

  1. To publish contributions in clinical and basic science research, in all field of medicine.
  2. To publish contributions in the prevention, care and treatment of diseases, and on the promotion of health in developed and developing countries.
  3. We shall also accept articles on medical education, social medicine and other related medical subjects (Nursing, Medical laboratory Sciences, Medical Radiography and Rehabilitation, Clinical Pharmacy etc).

Editorial Policy

Manuscripts are published in English, using United States spelling. However, we shall not reject any article purely on the basis of a lack of acquaintance with the style of written English language. The editors will provide support for authors whose first language is not English. We hope that the publication of this journal will bring an exciting opportunity for international scholarly communication and research. For all matters related to the manuscript, a corresponding author should be appointed by the authors. All manuscripts received are duly acknowledged and reviewed in the beginning by our editors for suitability for our journals before proceeding for the formal peer review. We will immediately reject manuscripts with insufficient creativity, grave scientific or technical flaws, or deficient in considerable message. Furthermore, articles that differ markedly from our scope will be rejected. However, an alternative journal may be suggested.

As soon as we determine the suitability of manuscripts for publication in International Journal of Medicine and Health Development, two or more expert reviewers who have published in that specialty are appointed. Authors may also be requested to indicate the names of two or more experienced reviewers with considerable experience in the study area where their manuscripts may be sent to. However, the suggested reviewers should not have the same affiliation with the authors. The double-blind review process, in which the reviewers and authors are oblivious of each other’s identity, is adopted. Each member of the editorial team is responsible for a manuscript, but the final decision on acceptance lies on the editorial team. The corresponding author receives the comments, and suggestions (acceptance/ rejection/ amendments in manuscript) and he may be requested to provide a point by point reaction to the reviewers’ comments and submit a revised version of the manuscript. This process is repeated till reviewers and editors are satisfied with the manuscript. Accepted manuscripts for publications are copy edited for grammar, punctuation, print style, and format. Page proofs are sent to the corresponding author. The corresponding author is expected to return the corrected proofs within three days. It may not be appropriate to include corrections received after that period. The entire process of submission of the manuscript to an ultimate conclusion and sending and receiving proofs is concluded online. To achieve quicker and better propagation of knowledge and information, the journal publishes articles online as ‘Ahead of Print’ immediately on acceptance.

All submissions shall be accompanied neither by a covering letter which must sate that the article has neither been published nor under consideration for publication in any other journal. It must also state clearly that there is no conflict of interest. This restraint does not apply to results published as abstracts of communications, letters to the editor or as preliminary reports. Authors should also declare financial supports that may pose a possible conflict of interest.


Clinical trial registry

International Journal of Medicine and Health Development favor registration of clinical trials. This should be registered in the clinical trial registry. Please, visit the following websites;;; and This only applies to clinical trials that have begun enrolment of subjects in or after June 2008. Retrospective registration is required for enrolments that started before 2008, with a clinical trial registry that allows unlimited online free admission to the public.

Ethical Consideration 

All submitted articles involving human experiments should be performed only in accordance with the ethical standards provided by the responsible committee of the institution and in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki (as revised in Edinburgh 2000), available at This must be clearly stated in the document. Authors may be asked to provide evidence of the ethical approval. Informed oral or written permission must be obtained from human subjects, and this must be clearly stated in the methodology section. Efforts should be made to preserve patient anonymity. Ensure confidentiality of subjects by desisting from mentioning participants’ names, initials or hospital numbers, especially in illustrative material. Indeed photographs should be cropped sufficiently to prevent the recognition of human subjects being. An eye bar can be used if necessary. Animal experiments must conform to the instructions for the care and use of animals provided by the institution at which the research was carried out.

The International Committee of Medical, Journal Editors (ICMJE) has established uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals, including that each author of a manuscript must have made a significant contribution to the following 3 criteria to qualify for authorship: (1. Conceiving and designing the work represented by the article or analysing and interpreting the data, (2. Drafting the article or revising it critically for effective intellectual content, and (3. Giving final approval of the version to be published.

Contribution Details

The contribution of each author towards the preparation of the manuscript must be stated. Description should be divided in following categories, as applicable: concept, design, definition of intellectual content, literature search, clinical studies, experimental studies, data acquisition, data analysis, statistical analysis, manuscript preparation, manuscript editing and manuscript review. One or more author should take responsibility for the integrity of the work as a whole from inception to the published article and should be designated as ‘guarantor’.

 Conflicts of Interest/ Competing Interests

All authors of must disclose any and all conflicts of interest they may have with the publication of the manuscript or an institution or product that is mentioned in the manuscript and/or is critical to the outcome of the study presented. Authors should also disclose conflict of interest with products that compete with those mentioned in their manuscript.



Original Articles

These include randomized controlled trials, intervention studies, studies of screening and diagnostic test, outcome studies, cost effectiveness analyses, case-control series, and surveys with high response rate. Original articles should contain between 1500-3500 words (excluding Abstract, references and Tables). The content of the paper must justify its length. The presentation should be structured; abstract, introduction, patients/methods, results, discussion, acknowledgements, references, tables figures and legends.

Review Articles

Review articles will be highly selective. The body of the text should not exceed 4000 words. Review articles should address topics of general interest. They should provide systematic, critical assessments of the literature and creative discussion of relevant topics. The presentation should be structured and presented as a brief structured abstract, Introduction, Body of the review with headings and subheadings, References, and Figures and/or Tables where appropriate. Authors submitting review article should include a section describing the methods used for locating, selecting, extracting, and synthesising data.

Short Communications.

Up to 1500 words, with a maximum of two tables or figures and 12 references. A brief, three sentence summaries should be included.

Research Letters

For original research work. Up to 700 words with a single table or figure and a maximum of five references.

Case Reports/Case series

This should be up to 1000 words. A brief summary is required. The contents should be logically ordered, but division into sections is optional. One table or figure is allowed in addition to text. Up to five references may be given.

Letter to the Editor

Correspondence is welcomed on any subject, including editorials or articles that have appeared in International Journal of Medicine and Health DevelopmentLetters may also be a appropriate approach for presenting experiences or observations that are too brief for Short Reports.

Methods and Devices

Articles that describe procedures, techniques or equipment tailored by readers to their own situation of work are also welcomed. The name of the author, qualifications, position, and place of work should be given.



All manuscripts must be submitted on-line through the website . Registration is required for the first time users and is free. Registered authors can keep track of their articles after logging into the site using their user name and password. Authors do not have to pay for submission. Only fees for processing or publication of articles are charged.

Manuscripts that do not comply with “Instructions to Authors” would be returned to the authors for technical correction, before they undergo editorial/ peer-review. The manuscript should be submitted in the form of two separate files:


Title Page/First Page File/covering letter:

This file should provide

  • The type of manuscript (original article, case report, review article, Ethics Forum, Education Forum, Letter to editor, Images, etc.) Title of the manuscript, running title, names of all authors/ contributors (with designation and affiliations) and name(s) of department(s) and/ or institution(s) to which the work should be credited,. All information which can show authors identity should be written in this page. Use text/rtf/doc files. Do not zip the files.
  • The total number of pages, total number of photographs and word counts separately for abstract and the text (excluding the references, tables and abstract), word counts for introduction + discussion in case of an original article;
  • Source(s) of support in the form of grants, equipment, drugs, or all of these;
  • Acknowledgement, if any. One or more statements should specify 1) contributions that need acknowledging but do not justify authorship, such as general support by a departmental chair; 2) acknowledgments of technical help; and 3) acknowledgments of financial and material support, which should specify the nature of the support. This should be included in the title page of the manuscript and not in the main article file.
  • If the manuscript was presented as part in a meeting, the organization, place, and exact date on which it was read must be   stated. A full statement to the editor about all submissions and previous reports that might be regarded as unnecessary publication of the same or exceedingly similar work. Any such work should be referred to specifically, and referenced in the new paper. Copies of such material should be included with the submitted paper, to assist the editor decide how to handle the matter.
  • Registration number in case of a clinical trial and where it is registered (name of the registry and its URL)
  • Conflicts of Interest of each author/ contributor. A statement of financial or other relationships that might lead to a conflict of interest, if that information is not included in the manuscript itself or an authors’ form
  • Criteria for inclusion in the authors’/ contributors’ list
  • A statement that the manuscript has been read and approved by all the authors, that the requirements for authorship as stated earlier in this document have been met, and that each author believes that the manuscript represents honest work, if that information is not provided in another form (see below); and
  • The name, address, e-mail, and telephone number of the corresponding author, who is responsible for communicating with the other authors about revisions and final approval of the proofs, if that information is not included in the manuscript itself.

2   Blinded Article file: The manuscript must not contain any mention of the authors’ names or initials or the institution at which the study was done or acknowledgements. Page headers/running title can include the title but not the authors’ names. Manuscripts, not in compliance with The Journal’s blinding policy ,will be returned to the corresponding author. The main text of the article, beginning from Abstract till References (including tables) should be in this file. Use rtf/doc files. Do not zip the files. Limit the file size to 1024 kb (1MB). Do not, incorporate images in the file. The pages should be numbered consecutively, beginning with the first page of the blinded article file.

3   Images: Submit good quality color images. Each image should be less than 4 MB in size. Size of the image can be reduced by decreasing the actual height and width of the images (keep around 1800 x 1200 pixels or 5-6 inches). Images can be submitted as jpeg files. Do not zip the files. Legends for the figures/images should be included at the end of the article file.

The contributors’ / copyright transfer form (template provided below) has to be submitted in original with the signatures of all the contributors within two weeks of submission via courier, fax or email

Manuscript Preparation

Manuscripts must be submitted online using double line-spaced, Times New Roman, 12 font size, unjustified text throughout, with headings and subheadings in bold case. It should be submitted as a Rich Text Format (*, rtf) ,not as a word doc.

This should not exceed 250 words and must accompany all Review Articles, Original Articles and Short Reports, Research Letters, Case Reports, and Methods and Devices. The abstract should be structured to include the following: Background (context and rationale); Methods (study design, subjects (number and types), materials, techniques and statistical methods utilised); Results (main numerical data and statistical significance); and Conclusions (main objective and verifiable conclusions). These categories should be bolded and start a new paragraph for each section that is left justified. Three to eight keywords must be supplied.

Main Text

The text should include the following sections

This summaries the rationale, provides a concise research background and states in one sentence the purpose of the study. Results and conclusions are not allowed in this section.

Subjects and Methods

This should provide technical information about the study. There is no need to explain methodological details that have been published previously. Any device or equipment should include the year, manufacturer, city, and the country (in parenthesis). Give references to established methods, including statistical methods (see below); provide references and brief descriptions for methods that have been published but are not well known; describe new or significantly modified methods, give reasons for using them, and evaluate their limitations. Identify precisely all drugs and chemicals used, including generic name(s), dose(s), and route(s) of administration Procedure for sample size calculation should be specified.

Reports of randomized clinical trials should give information on all key study elements, including the protocol, assignment of interventions (methods of randomization, concealment of allocation to treatment groups), and the method of masking (blinding), based on the CONSORT Statement (

Reporting Guidelines for Specific Study Designs

InitiativeType of StudySource
CONSORTRandomized controlled trials
STARDStudies of diagnostic accuracy
QUOROMSystematic reviews and meta-analyses
STROBEObservational studies in epidemiology
MOOSEMeta-analyses of observational studies in epidemiology

Statistical analysis

The statistical software and methods used should be specified. Identify statistical significance by quoting the actual Pvalue (P > 0.05 or P < 0.05) is too vague to be accepted), However ,when the actual P value is too small: = 000000000000023, some soft wares may display the result as P = 0.000. Mathematically, 0.000 is not a value, and in that circumstance, values like P < 0.0001 will be accepted. P should be in upper case and in italics. Mean differences in continuous variables, proportions in categorical variables and relative risks including odds ratios and hazard ratios should be accompanied by their confidence intervals.


The findings should be presented in SI units and in logical sequence in the text, tables, and illustrations, giving the primary or most significant findings first. It is essential not duplicate in the text all the data in the tables or illustrations. Only relevant observations should be emphasized or summarized. Place extra- or accompanying materials and technical detail can in an appendix where it will be available but will not interrupt the flow of the text; alternatively, it can be published only in the electronic version of the journal.

When data are summarized in the Results section, produce numeric results not only as derivatives (for example, percentages) but also as the absolute numbers from which the derivatives were calculated, and specify the statistical methods used to analyze them. Restrict tables and figures to those needed to explain the argument of the paper and to assess its support. Use graphs as an alternative to tables with many entries; do not duplicate data in graphs and tables. Where scientifically appropriate, analyses of the data by variables such as age and sex should be included.


This deal deals with the interpretation of the results and their comparison with those of other studies. There is no need to repeat the results, review the literature, give textbook knowledge or cite references that do not have a close relationship with the present result. Strengths and limitations of the study, Interpretation and implications in the context of the totality of evidence what the research adds to the available evidence, effects on patient care and health policy, possible mechanisms); Controversies raised by the study; and future research directions (for this particular research collaboration, underlying mechanisms, clinical research. End with a brief conclusion linking back to the aim of the study.

This should include only funding organisations. No personal acknowledgements are allowed.

We recommend that citation should be restricted to the last decade as much as possible. The authors are responsible for the correctness of references. References should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they appear in the text. Citations should be written as superscripts at the end of the sentence/clause, after a full stop and surrounded by a square bracket. All references should be cited.

Unpublished data, personal communications, abstracts at meetings and manuscripts submitted for publication are not acceptable as references. Information from such sources may be cited in the text with the sources given in parentheses. References should be listed in a numerical order in the Reference section. Journal titles should be abbreviated according to the list of Journals Indexed in Index Medicus or MEDLINE ( The type and punctuation of references should be consistent with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (

For Example

  1. Journal article less than or equal to six authors(list all authors):
    Nwagha UI, Ugwu VO, Nwagha TU and Anyaehie USB. Asymptomatic Plasmodium parasitaemia in pregnant Nigerian women: Almost a decade after the roll back malaria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2009; 103:16-20. 
  1. Journal article more than six authors(list first six and add et al.):
    Chapman AB, Zamudio S, Woodmansee W, Merouani A, Osorio F, Johnson A et al. Systemic and Renal Hemodynamic changes in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle mimic early pregnancy. Am J Physiol 1997; 273:777-82.
  2. Volume with supplement: Ejezie FE and Nwagha UI. Iron content of breast milk in HIV positive pregnant Nigerian womenAnn Med Health Sci Res 2011; 102 Suppl 1:275-82.
  3. Issue with supplement: Onyedum CC, Dim C, Ugwu VON. Women’s perception of exclusive breast feeding. Ann Med Health Sci Res 2010; 23(2, Suppl 6):78-9.



Oguntano EB and Akinyele IO. Nutrient Composition of commonly eaten foods in Nigeria-raw processed and prepared. 2nd ed. Ibadan: Food Basket Foundation Publication series;1995.

Chapter in a Mainline Book

Sies H. What is oxidative stress? In: Keaney J F,editor. Oxidative Stress and Vascular Disease. 2nd ed. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2000: pp 1-8.


Editors as Authors

Nwagha UI and Okaro JM, editors. Reproductive health in the Tropics. Enugu, Nigeria: Ezu Books; 2007.



Journal Article on the Internet

Abood S. Quality improvement initiative in nursing homes: the ANA acts in an advisory role. Am J Nurs [serial on the Internet]. 2002 Jun [cited 2010 Sept 24];102(6):[about 6 am]. Available from:

Monograph on the Internet

Foley KM and Gelband H. (Eds). Improving palliative care for cancer [monograph on the Internet]. Washington: National Academy Press; 2001 [cited 2010 Sept 20]. Available from:

Homepage/Web site [homepage on the Internet]. New York: Association of Cancer Online Resources, Inc.; c2000-01 [updated 2009 Jun 21; cited 2010 Aug 15]. Available from:

Part of a homepage/Web site

American Medical Association [homepage on the Internet]. Chicago: The Association; c1995-2002 [updated 2001 Aug 23; cited 2002 Aug 12]. AMA Office of Group Practice Liaison; [about 2 screens]. Available from:

The commonly cited types of references are shown above, for other types of references such as newspaper items please refer to ICMJE Guidelines ( or


Tables should be self explanatory and must be prepared using the Table feature of the word processor. Tables should not duplicate information given in the text .Tables must be concise and cited consecutively using Arabic numerals in the text (Table 1, Table 2…etc.). Each table should be typed on a separate sheet. The title of the table should clearly indicate the nature of the contents and sufficient detail should be included in the footnote to facilitate interpretation without reference to the text. Vertical rules are not allowed. Use horizontal rules only. Tables with more than 10 columns and 25 rows are not acceptable. Place explanatory matter in footnotes, not in the heading. Explain in footnotes all non-standard abbreviations that are used in each table. Obtain permission for all fully borrowed, adapted, and modified tables and provide a credit line in the footnote. For footnotes use the following symbols, in this sequence: *, †, ‡, §, ||,¶ , **, ††, ‡‡.Tables with their legends should be provided at the end of the text after the references. The tables along with their number should be cited at the relevant place in the text.


  • Upload the images in JPEG format. The file size should be within 4 MB in size while uploading.
  • Figures should be numbered consecutively according to the order in which they have been first cited in the text.
  • Labels, numbers, and symbols should be clear and of uniform size. The lettering for figures should be large enough to be legible after reduction to fit the width of a printed column.
  • Symbols, arrows, or letters used in photomicrographs should contrast with the background and should be marked neatly with transfer type or by tissue overlay and not by pen.
  • Titles and detailed explanations belong in the legends for illustrations not on the illustrations themselves.
  • When graphs, scatter-grams or histograms are submitted the numerical data on which they are based should also be supplied.
  • The photographs and figures should be trimmed to remove all the unwanted areas.
  • If photographs of individuals are used, their pictures must be accompanied by written permission to use the photograph.
  • If a figure has been published elsewhere, acknowledge the original source and submit written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce the material. A credit line should appear in the legend for such figures.
  • Legends for illustrations: Type or print out legends (maximum 40 words, excluding the credit line) for illustrations using double spacing, with Arabic numerals corresponding to the illustrations. When symbols, arrows, numbers, or letters are used to identify parts of the illustrations, identify and explain each one in the legend. Explain the internal scale (magnification) and identify the method of staining in photomicrographs.
  • Final figures for print production: If the uploaded images are not print quality, the publisher office can request for higher resolution images which can be sent at the time of acceptance of the manuscript. Send sharp, glossy, un-mounted, color photographic prints, with height of 4 inches and width of 6 inches at the time of submitting the revised manuscript. Print outs of digital photographs are not acceptable. If digital images are the only source of images, ensure that the image has minimum resolution of 300 dpi or 1800 x 1600 pixels in TIFF format. Send the images on a CD. Each figure should have a label pasted (avoid use of liquid gum for pasting) on its back indicating the number of the figure, the running title, top of the figure and the legends of the figure. Do not write the contributor/s’ name/s. Do not write on the back of figures, scratch, or mark them by using paper clips.
  • The Journal reserves the right to crop, rotate, reduce, or enlarge the photographs to an acceptable size.


Sending a revised manuscript and Proofs>/a>

The revised version of the manuscript should be submitted online in a method similar to that used for submission of the manuscript for the first time. While submitting a revised version, there is no need to submit the “First Page” or “Covering Letter” file. Referees’ remarks along with point to point clarification at the beginning in the revised file itself should be included. Additionally, the authors should mark the changes as underlined or colored text in the article.

Reprints and proofs

Journal provides no free printed reprints. Authors can purchase reprints, payment for which should be done at the time of submitting the proofs.
Proofs will be sent to the corresponding authors by email approximately 2 weeks before the publication date.

Manuscript submission, processing and publication charges

Submission charge:
For now, the journal charges no fee on submission. This policy may change later

Article processing charge:

The journal charges following fee on acceptance

Case Report, Editorial, Letter To Editor, Original Article, Review Article: US $ 100 across board for all authors


The entire contents of the International Journal of Medicine and Health Development are protected college of Medicine University of Nigeria. The Journal, however, grants to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, perform and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works in any digital medium for any reasonable non-commercial purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship and ownership of the rights. The journal also grants the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal non-commercial use under Creative Commons Attribution-Non commercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License.


Covering letter

  • Signed by all contributors
  • Previous publication / presentations mentioned
  • Source of funding mentioned
  • Conflicts of interest disclosed


  • Last name and given name provided along with Middle name initials (where applicable)
  • Author for correspondence, with e-mail address provided
  • Number of contributors restricted as per the instructions
  • Identity not revealed in paper except title page (e.g. name of the institute in Methods, citing previous study as ‘our study’, names on figure labels, name of institute in photographs, etc.)

Presentation and format

  • Double spacing
  • Margins 2.5 cm from all four sides
  • Page numbers included at bottom
  • Title page contains all the desired information
  • Running title provided (not more than 50 characters)
  • Abstract page contains the full title of the manuscript
  • Abstract provided (structured abstract of 250 words for original articles, unstructured abstracts of about 150 words for all other manuscripts excluding letters to the Editor)
  • Key words provided (three or more)
  • Introduction of 75-100 words
  • Headings in title case (not ALL CAPITALS)
  • The references cited in the text should be after punctuation marks, in superscript with square bracket.
  • References according to the journal’s instructions, punctuation marks checked
  • Send the article file without ‘Track Changes’

Language and grammar

  • Uniformly American English
  • Write the full term for each abbreviation at its first use in the title, abstract, keywords and text separately unless it is a standard unit of measure. Numerals from 1 to 10 spelt out
  • Numerals at the beginning of the sentence spelt out
  • Check the manuscript for spelling, grammar and punctuation errors
  • If a brand name is cited, supply the manufacturer’s name and address (city and state/country).
  • Species names should be in italics

Tables and figures

  • No repetition of data in tables and graphs and in text
  • Actual numbers from which graphs drawn, provided
  • Figures necessary and of good quality (colour)
  • Table and figure numbers in Arabic letters (not Roman)
  • Labels pasted on back of the photographs (no names written)
  • Figure legends provided (not more than 40 words)
  • Patients’ privacy maintained (if not permission taken)
  • Credit note for borrowed figures/tables provided
  • Write the full term for each abbreviation used in the table as a footnote









  2. Background
  3. Aim
  4. Materials and Methods When Dealing With Animals/patient samples /retrospective patient records and Subjects and Methods When Dealing directly with Human subjects. This section of the abstract must include Settings and Design, and, Statistical analysis used. The selection of subjects must be done randomly
  5. Results
  6. Conclusion.

Introduction must clearly identify knowledge gaps and how the present study tends to fill the gaps. At the end of the introduction, the aim of the study must be stated

  2. Statement On Ethical Clearance And Informed Consent Must Be Mentioned In Methods Section. The Study Period Must Also Be Stated.
  3. Author must explain how the sample size was determined
  4. Questionnaires When Used Must Be Tested For Validity And Reliability; A Brief Description Of How This Is Done Must Be Stated In The Methods Section. A Sample Of The Questionnaires Must Be Attached As Appendix FOR THE REVIEWER TO SEE ONLY.

FOR REVIEW ARTICLES ONLY Immediately after the introduction write a section on

Methods of Literature search

This should include

This should include

  1. Search engines and key words used for the search
  2. Number of the articles initially obtained,
  3. Period /duration of retrieved papers.
  4. Number of articles included in the review.
  6. References should not be too old (majority in the last 5 years), and at least 50 in number




  1. In Original Article Only, When % Is Used for descriptive statistics In The Result Section Of Abstract And Bodyof A Text, YOU MUST Indicate The Numerator And Denominator. Eg 12.5% (50/200) Of All the Cases Were Females (this is not applicable to introduction and discussion sections of the manuscript). Percentages Must Be Kept To the Nearest One Decimal Place
  2. Exact P Values Should Be Recorded (P < Or > 0.05 Is Not Acceptable)
  3. P -Values Should Be Approximated To the Nearest Two Decimal Places. All Other Decimals in the Text Should Be Approximated To One Decimal unless specifically indicated.
  4. However, When the P Values Are Too Small i.e., If the Exact P-Value is Less Than 0.01 Eg P =0. 001, P=0.003-0.009, etc, It Should Be Recorded as P< 0.01
  5. Furthermore, If the Exact P-Value Is Extremely Small ie Less Than 0.001 Eg P =0.0001, P=0.0003, 0.0000003 etc, It Should Be Recorded as P< 0.001. Thus, The Lowest P Value That Needs to Be Reported Is P<0.001, and this should only be When the Exact P Value Is Extremely Small as above. Thus ,the only allowed 3decimal p value is P<0.001.
  6. P -Values Should Never Be Recorded As P= 0.000. Whenever A Soft Ware Brings Out The P Value Like This, Then, It Should Be Recorded As P<0.001.
  7. In The Result Section, Only The   P Values, Odds Ratio With 95% Confidence Intervals Should Be Included Eg(c2 = 3.01; D=2; P = 0.222) Is Wrong, Instead Remove. c2 = 3.01;D=2 And Present As ( P = 0.22,Then The Odds Ration And The 95% Confidence Interval) Only.
  8. As Much S Possible Ensure That all your mean values , P Values, OR, RR Etc Are Accompanied By Their 95 % Confidence Intervals. All the statistical soft wares used have a provision for calculating 95% CI even with descriptive statistics
  9. Mean ± SD Should Be Recorded As Mean (SD). The Plus and Minus Sign Should Be Removed E.G 34±6 should Be Recorded as 34(6).For Example; The Mean (SD) For Age Is 34(6)years.Include also the 95 % CI of the calculated mean.
  10. Please Include the Country of Design for Statistical Soft Ware’s Eg SPSS, Version 17.0 (Chicago Il, Usa). Epi Info Version 3.5.1 (CDC, Atlanta, Georgia, USA).
  11.  4: DISCUSSION


  1. Summary of key findings (primary outcome measures, secondary outcome measures, results as they relate to a prior hypothesis); compare with findings from other studies.
  2. Interpretation of the findings and implications in the context of the totality of evidence (is there a systematic review to refer to, if not, could one be reasonably done here and now? what this study adds to the available evidence, effects on patient care and health policy, possible mechanisms);
  3. Strengths and limitations of the study (study question, study design, data collection, analysis and interpretation);
  4. Controversies raised by this study; and
  5. Future research directions (for this particular research collaboration, underlying mechanisms, clinical research).
  6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. Funding Acknowledgements must be included, even when the research is self funded, statement on this must be included .



Update the References E.G. (Ensure That 50 % of the Ref. Are Less Than 5 Years Old, While 40% Should Be Less than 10 Years, and the Remaining 10% Should Not Be Very Old)





Contributors’ form

(to be modified as applicable and one signed copy attached with the manuscript)

Manuscript Title:


I/we certify that I/we have participated sufficiently in contributing to the intellectual content, concept and design of this work or the analysis and interpretation of the data (when applicable), as well as writing of the manuscript, to take public responsibility for it and have agreed to have my/our name listed as a contributor.

I/we believe that the manuscript represents valid work. Neither this manuscript nor one with substantially similar content under my/our authorship has been published or is being considered for publication elsewhere, except as described in the covering letter. I/we certify that all the data collected during the study is presented in this manuscript and no data from the study has been or will be published separately. I/we attest that, if requested by the editors, I/we will provide the data/information or will cooperate fully in obtaining and providing the data/information on which the manuscript is based, for examination by the editors or their assignees. Financial interests, direct or indirect, that exist or may be perceived to exist for individual contributors in connection with the content of this paper have been disclosed in the cover letter. Sources of outside support of the project are named in the covering letter.

I/We hereby transfer(s), assign(s), or otherwise convey(s) all copyright ownership, including any and all rights incidental thereto, exclusively to the International Journal of Medicine and Health Development in the event that such work is published by the International Journal of Medicine and Health Development. The International Journal of Medicine and Health Development shall own the work, including:

  1. Copyright;
  2. The right to grant permission to republish the article in whole or in part, with or without fee;
  3. The right to produce preprints or reprints and translate into languages other than English for sale or free distribution; and
  4. The right to republish the work in a collection of articles in any other mechanical or electronic format.

We give the rights to the corresponding author to make necessary changes as per the request of the journal, do the rest of the correspondence on our behalf and he/she will act as the guarantor for the manuscript on our behalf.

All persons who have made substantial contributions to the work reported in the manuscript, but who are not contributors, are named in the Acknowledgment and have given me/us their written permission to be named. If I/we do not include an Acknowledgment that means I/we have not received substantial contributions from non-contributors and no contributor has been omitted.

Name                            Signature              Date signed
1 —————                 —————           —————
2 —————                 —————           —————
3 —————                 —————           —————
4 —————                 —————           ————— (up to 4 contributors for case report/ images/ review)
5 —————                 —————           —————
6 —————                 —————           ————— (up to 6 contributors for original studies)

Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 1118-2601