Side effects of drugs used in directly observed treatment short course in newly diagnosed pulmonary Tuberculosis patients in a Nigeria Teaching Hospital: A retrospective study.

  • OC Ekwueme
  • RC Anakwue
Keywords: Directly observed treatment short course, Adverse reactions, Anti-TB drugs

Abstract

Aim: The study assessed the side effects of drugs used in directly observed treatment short course in a newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients at the chest unit of University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital in Enugu State, Nigeria

Methods: A retrospective study, involving a 3-year review of case files of TB patients diagnosed as new cases was conducted in 2008. A protocol proforma was used to extract data from the folders. Data analysis was done with Epi-info version 3.3.2 software.


Results: Various adverse drug reactions were recorded in 160(20.8%) out of the 768 case files reviewed. The adverse reactions in their decreasing order of occurrence were althralgia, 64(40.4%), fever and muscular pains 35(21.9%) each, pruritis 31(19.4%), muscle weakness 16(10.0%), peripheral neuropathy 15(9.4%), nausea & vomiting 13(8.1%),maculopapular rash and headache 9(5.6%) each. Exfoliative dermatitis, jaundice, impaired vision, confusion and renal impairment were 1(0.6%), 2(1.3%), 3(1.9%), 1(0.6%) and 1(0.6%) respectively. Seventy-nine (60.0%) of these reactions were successfully managed within the chest clinic. Six (3.7%) were referred to a special clinic with temporary
withdrawal of the anti-tuberculosis drugs in 5(3.1%) and permanent withdrawal of the suspected drug in one (0.6%) of the cases. The treatment outcome of the remaining 58(36.3%) were not documented. A statistically significant difference (p<0.05) in occurrence of adverse reactions was found among TB patients and TB/HIV co-infected
patients in 4 (21.1%) out of the 19 adverse reactions recorded.


Conclusion: The prevalence of anti-tuberculosis drug reactions at the chest unit of UNTH is low and are mostly minor reactions responded to treatment. However, proper documentation of these reactions including management outcome are necessary.

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