The Prevalence of Microalbuminuria in Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Enugu Metropolis.
Objective. To determine the prevalence of microalbuminuria among diabetic patients seen in two tertiary hospitals in Enugu, southeast Nigeria and its relationship with the patients’ characteristics.
Materials and Methods: Ninety three (93) patients, 46 males, aged between 35 and 71 years and registered in the diabetic clinics of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku/Ozalla and the Parklane Specialist Hospital, both in Enugu Southeast, Nigeria were randomly selected for the study. Results. Fifteen (15) patients (16.1%) had microalbuminuria. The mean (±SD) concentration of microalbumin of the patients was 31.74 (±9.69) mg/dl. The mean (±SD) age, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting blood glucose (FBG), and duration of diabetes of the patients with microalbuminuria were, 53 (±11) years, 26.1 (±4.7) kg/ m2, 147.9 (±22.7) mmHg, 89.7 (±11.9) mmHg, 11.9 (±6.7) mmol/l, 6.0 (±4.0) years respectively. For the whole study population, corresponding values were 57.0(±13.0) years, 26.9 (±5.9) kg/m2, 139.2 (±22.8) mmHg, 83.1 (±11.8) mmHg, 9.9 (±5.9) mmol/l, and 6.0 (±5.0) years. The mean BBP and FBG values of patients with microalbuminuria differed significantly form that of patients without microalbuminuria, p< 0.05. Microalbumin concentration did not correlate with any of the parameters but was associated with poorer glycaemic control, higher SBP and longer duration of illness and the male sex. Conclusions. The recorded 16.1% prevalence of microalbuminuria in this study is an indication of high cardiovascular risk and predisposition to severe renal damage. There are drugs for early intervention to delay progression or reverse early glomerular damage. It is recommended that regular check for microalbuminuria be incorporated in the care of Nigeria diabetic patients in order to detect and treat early glomerular damage.
Key words: microalbuminuria; type 2 diabetes; proteinuria; renal glomerular damage.