Determinants of job satisfaction among physicians in public hospitals in Calabar, Nigeria
Background: Little is known about organizational factors and personal characteristics that affect job satisfaction among health care providers in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to identify the determinants of job satisfaction among physicians in Calabar.
Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted among all 157 eligible and consenting physicians who had worked for at least six months in three public hospitals in Calabar. Data collection tool was a pretested self-administered questionnaire that also contained a section on job satisfaction assessment with both single-item and Spector multi-item Job Satisfaction Survey. Overall job satisfaction was assessed as the dependent variable using a single-item satisfaction measure. Domain-specific satisfaction was assessed as independent variables using the Spector Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) instrument and adapted items from the Netherlands Working Conditions Survey. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS 14.0. A mutivariate logistic regression model for overall job satisfaction was developed.
Results: Majority (68.2%) were males. The mean age of the respondents was 32.8 ± 5.4 years. In the logistic regression model, the variables that independently predicted overall job satisfaction among respondents included: pay (AOR= 6.43, 95% CI= 1.17-35.27), contingent reward (AOR= 12.28, 95% CI= 1.18-127.97), operating procedures (AOR= 3.62, 95% CI= 1.03-12.67), communication (AOR= 3.07, 95% CI= 1.25-7.5), job autonomy (AOR= 3.70, 95% CI= 1.03-13.30), and being married (AOR= 5.43, 95% CI= 1.52-15.23).
Conclusion: This study identified satisfaction with pay, contingent reward, operating procedures, communication, job autonomy and being married as determinants of overall job satisfaction among doctors in public hospitals in Calabar, Nigeria.
Keywords: Job satisfaction; Organizational factors; Personal characteristics; Physicians