Accommodative-Convergence Mechanism failure in HIV-Positive Non Presbyopic Patient on Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy: A case report

  • Sadiq Hassan
  • Philips I. Ebisike
  • Christopher O. Timothy
  • Basheer A.Z. Chedi
  • Rabi Y. Sani
  • Saudat G. Habib
Keywords: Accommodative-Convergence, HIV, Lateral Phoria, Refractive error.


Purpose: Accommodative-convergence mechanism failure could occur in non presbyopic HIV- sero positive patients on Highly Active Anti-Retroviral  Therapy (HAART). This could be due to either direct neuronal infection by HIV, pathologic changes of the lens or the ciliary body or adverse effects of some individual drugs constituting the HAART regimen on the cranial nerves which play vital roles in the mechanism of accommodation and convergence.

Case report: This is a case report of an accommodative- convergence mechanism failure in HIV positive non presbyopic 32-year-old male patient  that was on HAART for more than five years. He presented with distance visual acuity (VA) of OD: 6/9 +2, OS: 6/9, and near visual acuity (NVA) of N24 both eyes, 3Δ esophoria at distance and 4Δ esophoria at near. Amplitude of accommodation (AA) was 3.50D and accommodative  convergence/accommodation (AC/A) ratio was 6/1. Following comprehensive evaluation, his refractive correction was OD: Plano/-0.50DC X 180 6/5 and OS: Plano/-0.50DC X 90 6/5 at distance with near addition (Add) 2.50D N5. This was prescribed for regular wear in form of D-Top bifocal lens.

Conclusion: These findings showed that HIV sero-positive adults on HAART could develop accommodativeconvergence mechanism failure, which may be characterized by low amplitude of accommodation, receded near point of convergence and high non presbyopic reading addition. These conditions may be under-recognized and need for reading addition of a non presbyopic age is often overlooked.

Key Words: Accommodative-Convergence, HIV, Lateral Phoria, Refractive error.


Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 0795-0039
print ISSN: 0795-0039