Phytochemical Studies And Antimicrobial Properties Of Methanolic And Aqueous Extracts Of Lemon Grass Leaves (Cymbopogon Citratus)
Phytochemical studies were carried out on aqueous and methanolic extracts of Cymbopogon citratus (lemon grass). Agar well diffusion method was employed to assess the antimicrobial potency of the extracts against selected microbial pathogens. The mean zone of inhibition (mm) produced by methanolic extract at four different concentrations (50 mg%, 25 mg%, 12.5 mg%, 6.25 mg%) were Salmonella spp (31.75, 26.00, 21.50 and 15.00), respectively; and Pseudomonas spp (25.25, 19.25, 16.25 and 12.25) respectively. The aqueous extract demonstrated the least activity with mean zone of inhibition (mm) for test organisms Pseudomonas (20.75, 14.75 and 10.50) and Staphylococcus aureus (13.25). The MIC (Minimal Inhibitory Concentration) which is the lowest concentration of a drug that prevents growth of a particular pathogen for the methanolic and aqueous extract of Salmonella spp, Staphylococus aureus and Pseudomonas were 25% v/v and 50% v/v and the corresponding MBC were 50% v/v and 75% v/v. The aqueous and methanolic extracts showed no activity against Escherichia coli and Candida albicans Phytochemical screening showed that five active ingredients namely alkaloid, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, tannins and phlobatannins were present in both aqueous and methanolic solvents.
KEYWORDS: Lemon grass, agar well diffusion, phytochemical analysis, Candida albicans, cardiac glycosides.