Integrated effect of seeding rate, herbicide dosage and application timing on durum wheat (Triticum turgidum l. var durum) yield, yield components and wild oat (avena fatua l.) control in south eastern Ethiopia
AbstractKnowledge of optimal combinations of crop densities, herbicide dose and time of application could improve the effectiveness and net benefit of commonly used herbicides. A study was conducted at two locations in SARC on-station and farmer’s field, South Eastern Ethiopia for two years from 2007 to 2008. The experimental design was randomized complete block (RCB) design with split-plot arrangement. Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum) seeding rates (recommended, 25% and 50% plus recommended rate) were arranged in the main plot. Four wild oat (Avena fatua) herbicide, Topik, doses (0, 25, 50 and 100 % of the recommended dose) and three timing of applications (14 DA, 32 DAE and 50 DAE) were used as sub-plot treatments. The treatments were compared to determine their effect on durum wheat yield, yield components wild oat densities and control efficacies. Durum wheat seeding rates significantly influenced grain and biomass yield, spike per unit area and kernel weight. Seeding rate of 225 kg ha-1 produced highest grain yield (3810.4 kg ha-1) while 150 kg ha-1 recorded the lowest. Mean wild oat density count before herbicide application timings varied over the two locations averaging 37 and 87 seedlings m-2. Increasing seed rate by 25 and 50% increased wild oat control efficacy by 16.9 and 21.5% respectively. Spraying the herbicide at later growth stages caused greater wild oat seedling density and reduced wheat yield at both locations. The highest efficacy (94.04%) was obtained in the second time of application (30 DAE) of 1 l lit ha-1. The highest reduction in population density was occurred in 100% herbicide rate. There was a general decline in wild oat density in the early application and as the herbicide dose increased, but the effect of seeding rate varied very slightly. In contrast to the wild oat control efficacy the highest grain yield ha-1 was obtained in the first application date (14 DAE). Durum wheat yield losses in the absence of herbicide application were increased by about 16%. Maximum yield (3870.73 kg ha-1) was obtained at 100% of the herbicide dose very closely followed by 50 and 25% of the recommended rate reducing durum wheat yield only by about 1.6 and 2% respectively. Durum wheat seeding rate, herbicide dosage and application timing had statistically no significant interaction effect. Key words: Durum wheat, Wild oat, Herbicide dose, Seeding rate, Application timing.
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