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Assessment of Heavy Metals in Water, Fish, and Sediment of River Benue, Benue State, Nigeria

O. C. Egesi
O. Alum-Udensi
P. C. Ogbonna
N. N. Ugor


Good Quality Rivers is a key source of drinking water and healthy aquatic organisms for human consumption. Water, fish, and sediment samples were each collected separately at four sampling stations viz: Wurukun abattoir, major storm drain, Wadata market, and 150 m upstream. Each of the samples was processed separately in the laboratory and analyzed to determine the concentrations of Mn, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu using an atomic absorption spectrometer. Results show that highest values of Cd (4.01± 0.01 mg/L and 6.01±0.01 mg/kg), Pb (13.01±5.77 mg/L and 10.01±0.01 mg/kg), Zn (4.44±2.79 mg/L and 12.02±0.02 mg/kg), Cu (19.31±0.01 mg/L and 0.51±0.01 mg/kg) and Mn (43.78±10.08 mg/L and 19.01±0.01 mg/kg) were recorded in water and catfish gills, respectively from the major drain station while the highest values of Cd (13.01±4.10 mg/kg), Pb (19.01±5.20 mg/kg), Zn (9.75±2.38 mg/kg), Cu (0.75±0.07 mg/kg) and Mn (22.02±5.02 mg/kg) were obtained in sediments from the abattoir station. The concentration of heavy metals in samples tested in this study was above the permissible limit recommended by WHO and FMEnvi except for Cu in catfish gills. Consequently, Sustained ingestion and consumption of Cd, Pb, Zn, and Mn-laced water and fish collected from River Benue may be a major source of this heavy metal toxicity in humans. Therefore, an assessment of other types of heavy metals not tested in this study should be carried out in River Benue.