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Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Breakfast Meals Produced from Germinated Rice (Oryza sativa) and Pigeon Pea Flour Blends (Cajanus cajan)

V. C. Ezeocha
J. O. Nnanna
C. M. Ajah


This study evaluated the chemical and sensory properties of breakfast meals produced from germinated Rice (Oryza sativa) and Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan). Two sample blends were formed with the blends at the ratio of 50%: 50% and 60%:40% germinated rice and germinated pigeon pea flour respectively. The control samples were 100% un-germinated rice flour and 100% germinated rice. The functional and pasting properties of the flours were determined. After this the breakfast meals were produced and their chemical and sensory properties were evaluated. The bulk density of the flours ranged from 0.75 g/ml to 0.88 g/ml, water absorption capacity from 1.83 to 2.73 g/g, and solubility index from 1.31 to 2.41 g/ml. The Peak viscosity of the flours ranged from 254.00 to 513.92 RVU, final viscosity; 302.33 to 533.08 RVU, peak time; 4.13 to 4.80 mins and pasting temperature; 77.7 to 80.6 OC. The crude protein, crude fibre and ash content of the breakfast meals ranged from 6.97 to 20.09%, 0.85 to 1.78% and 2.49 to 3.38 % respectively while anti-nutrients such as trypsin inhibitor, tannin and phytate ranged from 1.17 to 7.34 TIU/g, 0.41 to 2.14 mg/100g and 2.13 to 8.50 mg/100g respectively. The mineral composition of the samples ranged from 24.02 to 53.65 mg/100g for calcium, 1.15 to 1.95 mg/100g for iron and 10.33 to 29.62 mg/100g for Sodium. Breakfast meals produced with 100% germinated rice flour had the best organoleptic properties. Production of breakfast meals from blends of germinated rice and pigeon pea flours improved the nutrient compositions however, the organoleptic properties can further be improved for commercialization.