Phytochemical, Toxicological, Biochemical and Haematological Studies on Avocado (Persea americana) in Experimental Animals
The avocado tree belongs to the family lauraceae and is classified as Persea americana. The analysis of the fruits extract revealed the presence of considerable amounts of vitamins A, B2, C, K, folic acid, lutein, zeaxanthin, coenzyme Q10 and beta-carotene. When administered to wistar rats for acute toxicity studies, the animals did not exhibit any sign oftoxicity even when large doses were given. The maximum tolerable dose (MTD) was therefore determined to be . 10g/kg body weight. The extract was found to significantly decrease (p < 0.05) the activity of liver and heart enzymes in the treated animals when compared with the control. The extract decreased total cholesterol (TC) by 37.97%, triglycerides by 37.87%, very low density lipoproteins(VLDL) by 47,41%, low density lipoproteins(LDL) by 59.57%, and at the same time increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) by 3.64%. The extract also decreased the prothrombin time (PT) and the partial prothrombo plastin time with kaolin (PTTK). These results are discussed with regard to the preventive and possible curative values of this extract as a potential inhibitor of cardiovascular diseases and in the regulation of blood clotting time due to its significant vitamin K content.
Keywords: Persea americana, maximum tolerable dose, phytochemicals, prothrombin time.
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