Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Aqueous and Organic Extracts of Calotropis procera Ait Leaf and Latex
The aqueous and ethanol extract of Calotropis procera leaf and latex were investigated. The leaves and latex from the plant were tested for antimicrobial activities. The bioactive constituents extracted from the leaf and latex were tested against pathogenic organisms (Eschericia coli, Salmonella typhi, Bacillius subtilis, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger) using the Agar well diffusion method. The ethanolic latex extract showed significant activity against all the test organisms. The results revealed that ethanol is a more effective extractive solvent for antimicrobial activity of leaf and latex of C. procera. The ethanol extract of the latex gave the widest zone of inhibition (21mm) against B. subtilis. All the extracts inhibit the growth of all the organisms except B. subtilis of which the aqueous extract has no effect. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) for the latex extract was between 3 and 7.5 mg/ml for bacteria, and 5.0 to 7.0 mg/ ml for fungi. For the leaf extract the MIC for bacteria was between 5.0 and 10.5 mg/ml and 11 and 15 mg/ml for fungi. The results also showed an increase in antimicrobial activity with increase in temperature. This study therefore revealed that C. procera latex extract demonstrated strong and better inhibitory activity on the test organisms than the leaf extract. These findings therefore provide an explanation for the traditional medicinal use of C. procera extracts.
Keywords: Calotropis procera, latex, bioactive, antimicrobial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration.
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