In vivo assessment of the efficacy of Samorin and Berenil in nomadic cattle in South Western Nigeria
A total number of 37 cattle of both sexes predominantly of while Fulani breed and some white Fulani crosses selected from two herds reared under nomadic Fulani traditional management in South Western Nigeria were used in this study. The cattle were divided into two groups (I and II) depending on the trypanocide (lsometamidium chloride (Samorin)(R) or Diminazene aceturate (Berenil)(R) administered. The antigen - trapping enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique was used to determine the level of trypanosomal antigen in the blood of the cattle. The presence of trypanosomes was demonstrated by light microscopy of buffy coat obtained from centrifuged blood samples some few minutes before and 5 months after treatment. The packed cell volume (PCV), serum albumin and globulin levels were determined for the pre-and post-treatment periods. The prevalence of animal trypanosomiasis in the herds surveyed was 63% - 72% Hypoalbuminaemia, hypergfobulinaemia and low PCV values (anaemia) were observed as consistent features of the disease. Five months post-treatment with Samorin and Berenil, the prevalence dropped to 0 - 11% and the serum albumin, globulin and PCV levels were restored to normal. The differences in the pre- and post-treatment values were statistically significant (P<0. 05) for all the measurements evaluated. It was discovered that Samorin and Berenil are quite effective and beneficial as trypanocidal drugs in the traditional nomadic cattle industry despite the problem of translocation inherent in this form of cattle management. Samorin appeared to be much more effective than Berenil because it tremendously suppressed re-infection for up to five months post-treatment whereas some traceable level of re-infection was recorded for the Berenil treated group. The serious problem of continuity or lad of follow up treatment precipitated by the nomadic lifestyle of the Fulani herdsmen is highlighted in this study.
Keywords: Efficacy, samorin, berenil, nomadic cattle, South Western Nigeria