In vitro evaluation of aliphatic fatty alcohol metabolites of Perseaamericana seed as potential antimalarial and antimicrobial agents
PerseaamericanaMill (Lauraceae) is a local medicinal plant used in Nigerian ethnomedicine as antimalarial. The aqueous decoction of the root part is a potent remedy against bacterial infections. Hence, the need to investigate the phytochemical and biological activities (antimicrobial and antiplasmodial) of the rootback of Perseaamericana. Chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques were used in the identification and purification of metabolites, which were assayed for antimalarial and antimicrobial activities using Plasmodium falciparum and a panel of microorganisms. From the seeds of P. americana, five known 1, 2, 4-dihydroxy derivatives aliphatic alcohols, called avocadenols were isolated and identified by spectroscopic methodsincluding 1D- and 2D NMR, and comparison with reported data in literature. Antifungal activity for 1, 2, 4-Trihydroxyheptadec-6-en-16-yne (5)(IC50< 8 μg/mL) against all the fungal strains and S. areus, and antimalarial activity for compounds 1, 2, 4-Trihydroxyheptadec-16-ene (1) and 1, 2, 4-tetrahydroxyheptadecane-6, 16- diene(2)(IC50 = 1.6 and 1.4μg/mL for the D6 clone, respectively, and 2.1 and 1.4μg/mL for the W2 clone, respectively) was observed. The fatty alcohols 1, 2, 4- tetrahydroxyheptadecane-6, 16-diene(2); 1, 2, 4-Trihydroxyheptadec-16-yne(3) and 1, 2, 4- Trihydroxyheptadecane(4) also exhibited promising in vitro antibacterial activity against a panel of pathogenic bacteria S.areus, methicillin resistant S. areus and E.coli at IC50 values of 21.1, 8, 200μg/mL), (3.259, 86.32μg/mL) and (17.18, 8.26 and 200μg/mL), respectively.The results of this study provide evidence that the fatty alcohols are a promising class of antimalarial and antimicrobial agents.
Keywords: metabolites; antimalarial; antimicrobial isolation; Perseaamericana, seeds; Plasmodium falciparum