Epidemiological Study and Treatment Outcome of Primary Ocular and Adnexal Malignancies in a Rural Indian Tertiary Eye Care Center
Purpose: Malignancies of the eye and adnexa are rare, and account for only 0.2–0.8% of all human malignancies. Although specific tumor related studies are reported in the literature, a study of all the ocular malignancies are very few, and to the best of our knowledge, none from a rural population. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and treatment outcomes of primary ocular malignancies in rural India. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of 92 histopathologically proven primary ocular and adnexal malignancies encountered at Pravara Rural Medical College, Loni, over a period of 20 years (July 1994–June 2014) was undertaken. Patients of all age groups were included. Results: Squamous cell carcinoma was found to be the most common primary ocular malignancy. A bimodal peak was observed in the age distribution, one during the first decade due to retinoblastoma and the second in the fifth decade due the other malignancies. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common malignancy with 38.04%, followed by retinoblastoma 25%. A combined approach of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy was used to save life, salvage the eye and possibly maintain useful vision. Reconstruction of the orbital and periorbital region was also done wherever possible. Conclusion: Retinoblastoma was the most common malignancy in the first decade of life. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common malignancy overall. The presence of HIV in cases of squamous cell carcinoma, especially among young patients, should be kept in mind. The outcome of management is better, with possible cure, if diagnosis is made early and proper surgery along with other adjuvant measures are undertaken.
Keywords: Epidemiological study, periocular malignancies, primary ocular malignancies, rural India