Ocular Adnexal and Anterior Segment Manifestations of HIV/AIDS Patients as Seen at the HIV Clinic, 45 Nigerian Airforce Hospital Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria
Background: Benue State has the highest rate of sero-prevalence to human immuno virus (HIV) infections among the ten hyper-endemic states in Nigeria. This study evaluates the pattern of ocular adnexal and anterior segment manifestations in HIV/AIDS patients attending the HIV clinic at the NAF Hospital in Makurdi, Benue State and assesses their effects on the visual functions of the patients.
Methods: This is a hospital-based prospective study of all new patients who presented at the HIV clinic between October 2007 and March 2008. Ocular and systemic examinations were carried out and personal data including age, sex, place of abode, occupation and marital status were recorded for each patient.
Results: A total of 322 patients were seen. The male to female ratio was 1:1.50. The age range was 4-68 years. The prevalence rate of anterior segment/ocular adnexal manifestation was 65.2%. Conjunctival microangiopathy was the commonest ocular adnexal/anterior segment presentation constituting 33.8% (highest anterior segment manifestation). Iridocyclitis constituted 27.14%, while herpes zoster
ophthalmicus accounted for only 3.3% of the cases. The majority of the patients (95.1%) had normal visual acuity at presentation to the clinic. Twelve percent had visual impairment, while 5.0% presented with severe visual impairment.
Conclusion: Conjunctival microangiopathy, iridocyclitis and molluscum contagiosum were the main anterior segment lesions observed in this study. Less than 2% of the patients had severe visual impairment or blindness at presentation to the clinic.
Key words: HIV, ocular adnexae, anterior segment, visual acuity, HIV hyper-endemic state