Bacterial aetiology of septicaemia in children of post-neonatal age at the Institute of Child Health, Banzazzau, Zaria, Nigeria
Introduction: Septicaemia is a clinical syndrome characterized by systemic inflammatory response. It is has been reported to be one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among children in developing countries of the world.
Objectives: the aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of septicaemia in children brought to the Institute of Child Health Banzazzau, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, (ABUTH) Zaria and to isolate the aetiologic agents responsible for septicaemia in these children.
Methods: Blood samples of children (aged one month – 12 years) with clinical symptoms of suspected septicaemia was taken under strict aseptic condition and inoculated into thioglycolate broth then incubated for 24hrs Subcultures were made after the first 24 hrs onto blood, chocolate and MacConkey agar plates and also when there were signs of bacterial growth shown by turbidity of the samples. Identification of isolates was based on their morphology on agar plates, Gram stain reaction and biochemical properties.
Results: The mean age was three years with a peak in the first year of life. The male: female ratio was 1:1.3. Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella species were the commonest isolates accounting for 24 (43.64%) and 13 (23.64%) respectively. Other bacterial isolates included Coagulase negative staphyloc occi(CoNS) (7.27%), Citrobacter specie (10.94%), Pseudomonas specie (7.24%), Proteus species (3.64%) and Klebsiella species (3.64%).
Conclusion: Results show both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria to be implicated with septicaemia with Staph aureus and Salmonella being the most frequent aetiologic agents, children less than or equal to five years were mostly affected, there is a need for routine monitoring of bacterial isolates and the age group at risk.
Keywords: Bacterial isolates, children, septicaemia.