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Introduction: Pneumonia is the highest killer of children worldwide. Nigeria is one of the high burden pneumonia countries. Studies have observed seasonal variations in the prevalence of pneumonia.
Objective: To identify the prevalence and bio-demographics of childhood pneumonia, as well as its epidemiological pattern, seasonal variation, co-morbidities, complications and outcomes in the paediatric ward of a tertiary hospital in Southern Nigeria
Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study. Information on all patients admitted into the paediatric medical ward with pneumonia from January 2013 to December 2017 were extracted from the ward register. Data were analysed using Stata version 12.
Results: The prevalence of Pneumonia was 18% (590 out of 3276). Three hundred (50.9%) of the 590 children with pneumonia belonged to the 0-11 months age group. Pneumonia was commoner in males (57.8%). Five hundred and seventy three (97.3%) children had bronchopneumonia. The mortality rate for pneumonia was 1.2% The median duration of admission for all children with pneumonia was five days with a discharge rate of 96.9%. The commonest complication observed was congestive cardiac failure in 23 out of 29 (79.3%). The three most common co- morbidities with pneumonia were malaria, sepsis and congenital heart disease (27.8%, 10.7% and 8.8% respectively) pneumonia prevalence was higher in the rainy
season with a double peak in March and October.
Conclusion: Childhood community acquired Pneumonia prevalence is still high in Nigeria especially in the rainy season. Intensified efforts should be made in the prevention and early treatment of pneumonia so as to prevent prolonged morbidity and mortality.
Key words: Pneumonia, childhood, Nigeria, seasonal variation