Complications of pneumonia and its associated factors in a pediatric population in Osogbo, Nigeria
Introduction: Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in underfive children. Nigeria still has a high burden of child death due to pneumonia. Many of these deaths result from the development of complications. This study was done to determine the pattern of pneumonia complications and its associated factors amongst underfive children with pneumonia.
Methods: It was a hospital-based cross-sectional observational study involving 129 children aged 1 - 60 months with a diagnosis of pneumonia. The participants were recruited over a nine-month period. Clinical signs were recorded, and a confirmatory chest radiograph was obtained within 24
hours of admission.
Result: Of the129 subjects studied, 70 (54.3%) had complications. Children less than 24 months had a higher frequency of complications at presentation. Heart failure and anemia occurred more commonly. Other complications were pleural effusion, empyema, pneumatocele and pneumothorax. More than half (57.1%) of those with complication were hypoxaemic at presentation. Complicated pneumonia was significantly associated with prolonged hospital stay and risk of mortality.
Conclusion: Complication is common among children hospitalized for pneumonia in Osogbo. Heart failure was the most common complication. Presence of pneumonia complications and hypoxaemia are important contributors to mortality in this environment.
Keywords: Pneumonia, complication, under-fives, Nigeria.