Prevalence and distribution of malaria, Pfcrt, Pfmdr 1 Genes in Benin Metropolis, Edo State, Nigeria
This study aimed at evaluating the distribution of malaria, Plasmodium falciparum resistant chloroquine transporter (Pfrct), and Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistant (Pfmdr 1) mutant genes amongst residents of Benin metropolis, was carried out during the period between October 2008 and April 2010. Seven hundred and forty-four (744) malaria patients with symptoms of malaria were enlisted for this study and were distributed as follows;. 286(93.1%) were from Oredo Local Government Area (LGA), while 224(92.9%) and 234(93.0%) from Egor and Ikpoba Okha LGAs respectively. Diagnosis of malaria was by the thick blood film microscopy. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique was used to determine the genotype of the resistance genes of P. falciparum. Questionnaires were used to obtain information on duration of illness and treatment, annual frequency of illness and treatment options. Data generated from this study on Pfcrt, Pfmdr 1, and information on knowledge, attitude
and perception from questionnaires were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows (SPSS Chicago, IL, USA). The statistical parameters used for the analysis of the data included the Pearson’s Chi-square Test. The percentage distribution of malaria infection in Oredo, Egor and Ikpoba Okha was 266 (93%), 208 (92.9%) and 218 (93.1%) respectively, and did not show significant difference (P>0.05). The prevalence of Pfcrt (25%) and Pfmdr 1 (19%) did not show any significant difference. The overall results revealed the presence of Pfcrt and Pfmdr1mutant genes of Plasmodium falciparum as predictive of in-vitro and in-vivo chloroquine and other medications in combination therapy resistance and therefore may be useful in monitoring resistance to those drugs. In this study, the distribution of the mutant genes- Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 in Benin metropolis was highlighted.
Keywords: Prevalence; Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 mutant genes; malaria distribution; Benin metropolis.