Prevalence and distribution of Wuchereria bancrofti in Ose Local Government Area, Ondo State, Nigeria
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is one of the neglected tropical diseases endemic in Nigeria. Epidemiological studies were conducted to determine the prevalence, distribution and clinical signs of the disease in three communities of Ose LGA, Ondo State from October 2014 to January 2015. One thousand and ninety consented participants enrolled for the study. 100 μl of blood from finger-prick, were tested using the Binax Now® Immunochromatographic Test (ICT) which detects Wuchereria bancrofti antigens. Physical observations were conducted for clinical signs of LF in addition to demographic parameters. Chi-square test was used to establish statistical significance of relationship between variables (p<0.05) using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 19.0. Of the 1,090 blood specimens examined, 291 (27%) were positive for infection with W. bancrofti. Analysis of the infection across the communities revealed a significant (p<0.05) relationship in the distribution of the infection. Further analysis of results showed that 108 (27%) out of the 394 males were positive and 183 (26%) of 696 females were positive for LF. However, the distribution of infection among the sexes were not significant (p>0.05). Infection among age-groups was higher in the 36-45 age-group (36%) and varied among the other age-groups but with no significant difference (p>0.05). Infection was significantly (p<0.05) higher among the public servants with 34% than the other groups and the least among students (15%). Clinical manifestations found in the study were hydrocele (0.3%) and leg lymphoedema (0.7%). Detection of W. bancrofti antigens indicates that an entomological study has is recommended to determine the transmitting vector and advocate an effective control.
Keywords: lymphatic filariasis, immunochromatographic test (ICT), distribution, prevalence, Ose LGA