Artemisinin resistance marker of Plasmodium falciparum in Osogbo Metropolis, south-west, Nigeria
Artemisinin derivatives constitute a key component of the present-day treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Resistance with artemisinins is generally associated with S769N point mutation in the sarco-endoplasmic reticulumdependant ATPase6 (SERCA ATPase6) gene of Plasmodium falciparum, few studies have been carried outon the current level baseline and level of mutation of this drug in Nigeria. The present study determined the distribution of Plasmodium falciparum and resistance marker for artemisinin drugs from the blood smears of seventy randomly sampled patients attending Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Osun State after obtaining ethical clearance from the Ethical committee of Laddoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital. The entire study period was divided into pretreatment, drug administration and post-treatment phases. Blood smears of 70 consented participants were assessed microscopically using Giemsa staining technique for parasite identification and parasitaemia. Samples found to have parasitaemia after drug administration were amplified and assessed for distribution of the PfATPase6 S769N mutation using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique. Twenty-eight out of samples subjected to PCR had successful amplification. However, none of the amplified samples harboured the PfATPase6 S769N mutation, suggesting 100% sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum population examined at the study area. There is therefore need for continuous surveillance for earlier detection of resistance as the use of ACT is being scaled up in the country.
Keywords: artemisine, resistance marker, Plasmodium falciparum