Prevalence of cryptosporidiasis and isosporiasis among HIV-positive patients attending some hospitals in Bauchi Metropolis
HIV-infected patients are susceptible to a variety of common and opportunistic infections due to progressive decline in their immunity status. Cryptosporidiasis and isosporiasis are intestinal opportunistic infections associated with HIV/AIDS. A total of 200 HIV and non-HIV patients were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium purvum and Isospora belli. Out of this, 78(39%) hadcryptosporidiasis, 36 (18%) isosporiasis and 23 (11.5) were co-infected with the two intestinal parasites. Highest prevalence of cryptosporidiasis 26 (33.3%) and isosporiasis (30.5%) were both found among (31-40) years age group. But the parasitic co-infection was more prevalent (30.4%) in those within 21 to 30 years-age. The rate of these parasitic infections is higher in males 61.9%, 52.8% and 60.9% respectively, than in females. The socio-economic status of the patients indicated a highest prevalence of these infections among traders/artisans 33.3%, 30.6% and 34.8% respectively. The infections are more prevalent 48.7%, 52.8% and 52.2% in those patients from rural settings. Clinical profile of the patients indicated that 75.6% of HIV positive patients and 24.4% HIV negative had cryptosporidiasis, 69.4% and 30.6% isosporiasis, with 47.8% and 52.2% co-infected. The infections were higher 85.9%, 80.6%, and 78.3% respectively in those with diarrhoea and HIV patients not receiving ART. The parasitic co-infection is higher (78.3%) in those with low CD4+ cells count. The synergistic effects of these co-infections especially on HIV patients may increases their morbidity and mortality rates, hence the need for early diagnosis and proper ART-based management.
Keywords: Cryptosporidiasis; isosporiasis; HIV/AIDS; CD4+ cells count; antiretroviral therapy (ART).