Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum in participants at selected hospitals, Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria
Malaria, endemic in Nigeria, is a life-threatening disease caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through the bites of infected female Anopheles spp. of mosquitoes. The majority of infections are caused by Plasmodium falciparum, the most severe of the five malaria parasites. Malaria parasite prevalence studies had been undertaken in many parts of Nigeria but there seem to be little information in literature on the prevalence of the disease in Kaduna metropolis. It is in view of the above that this work was conducted to determine the prevalence of P. falciparum malaria. Three-hundred and five (305) participants aged 1-60 years were screened for P. falciparum malaria parasitemia using HRP-2 pf Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) Device. Thick and thin films were also prepared from the venous blood containing EDTA for microscopy. The plus sign scheme was used to report the degree of parasitemia. ABO and Rh blood groups of the participants were also determined on the basis of agglutination method with commercially purchased monoclonal ABD antisera. Of the three hundred and five (305) participants screened (165 males and 140 females), 121 (39.7%) blood samples were positive for P. falciparum which comprise 79 (47.9%) males and 42 (30.0%) females. Malaria parasitaemia was present in all the blood-groups, and agegroups but prevalence varied among the groups. Chi-square values obtained showed no significant difference or association among age-groups and ABO blood group (p>0.05). However the prevalence of malaria in relation to gender, and Rh D factor in ABO blood group with malaria was statistically significant (p<0.05).
Keywords: Malaria; ABO blood groups; rhesus D factor; prevalence; parasitaemia