Modification of giemsa stain technique for better diagnosis of haemoprotozoan parasites and prevalence of bovine babesiosis in Makurdi Metropolis Major Abattoir
Microscopic techniques for diagnosis of haemoparasitic diseases are still considered as the “gold standard”. A study was conducted to assess the effect of various dilutions and staining time on the clarity of thin blood smears for diagnosis of haemoparasites. The giemsa stain was diluted to different concentrations and stained for varied times (5% Giemsa stain for 60, 45, 30 and 25 minutes; 10% for 45, 35, 25 and 20; 15% for 30, 20, 10 and 5; 20% for 20, 10 and 5 minutes respectively). The clearest was test run with the standard to determine the prevalence rate of bovine babesiosis among cattle slaughtered in Makurdi major abattoir. The results revealed 5% for 60 minutes to be the clearest. One hundred blood samples were collected from cattle at point of slaughter at Makurdi main abattoir and screened using both 10% and 5% giemsa concentrations at 30 minutes and 60 minutes respectively for bovine babesiosis. Prevalence rate of 53% and 51% were recorded for the 10% and 5% respectively. Three different types of haemoparasites were recorded; Anaplasma spp had the highest prevalence rate (30% and 26%) and Trypanosoma spp. had the lowest (1% and 0%), while Babesia spp was 9% and 6% respectively. There were no significant differences between the parasites observed. The study revealed that 5% Giemsa concentration is also suitable for diagnosis of bovine babesiosis and similar work is recommended for other haemoparasites using different stains that are commonly used in parasitology laboratory.
Keywords: Giemsa stain; haemoparasites; babesiosis; microscope; bovine.