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Correlation between Body Mass Index and Gleason Score in Men with Prostate Cancer in Southeastern Nigeria


Uchenna Victor Nwadi
Alexander Maduaburochukwu Ekwunife Nwofor
Chidi Kingsley Oranusi
Jideofor Chukwuma Orakwe
Emmanuel Ahuizechukwu Obiesie
Timothy Uzoma Mbaeri
Joseph Amaoge Abiahu

Abstract

Introduction: Prostate cancer has an increasing global burden. The clinical course varies from an indolent disease to a rapidly aggressive cancer. It is associated with higher mortality in less developed nations due to late presentation. The Gleason scoring system for prostatic adenocarcinoma has prognostic implications in diagnosed cases. Obesity has been associated with the evolution of many cancers including prostate cancer. There are conflicting reports on the relationship between obesity, as measured by body mass index (BMI), and prostate cancer aggressiveness, as measured by Gleason score. This study is aimed to determine if a correlation exists between BMI and Gleason score in men with prostate cancer. Methodology: This was a prospective, hospital-based, cross-sectional study involving consecutive patients with prostate cancer. Clinical evaluation including anthropometry, digital rectal examination, and relevant investigations were done for each patient and data collected with pro forma. This was followed by prostate needle biopsy and those diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the prostate had their Gleason grades and scores obtained. Data were analyzed statistically using Spearman Correlation.  Results: The mean age of the patients was 69.54 ± 8.61 years (range 47–83 years). The BMI ranged from 16.98 to 36.45 kg/m2, with a mean of 27.03 ± 5.03 kg/m2. Twenty-six of the patients (36.1%) were overweight and 34.7% were obese. The mean total prostate-specific antigen was 118.65 ± 84.43 ng/ml, with a range of 31–406 ng/ml. The modal Gleason score was 9 with a range of 4–10. There was a strong positive correlation between BMI and Gleason score (r = 0.817, P = 0.0003). Conclusion: The BMI of patients with prostate cancer correlated positively with their Gleason score.