Main Article Content

The phytochemical analysis and safety evaluation of ethanol leaf extract of <i>Grewia carpinifolia</i> in Wistar rat

O.E. Adebiyi
F.O. Olayemi


The traditional use of plants is a common practice globally. Grewia carpinifolia is used in treatment of gastrointestinal disorders and as anti-parasitic. However its toxicity profiles are not well documented. Thus there is a need to identify the phytochemical composition of the plant as well as its toxicity following acute and sub-chronic oral administration. The phytochemical analysis, acute toxicity profile as well as daily feed and water intake, body weight changes, serum biochemical and haematological parameters and histology of vital organs were assessed following a daily single oral administration in a 28-day study. Tannins, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, phlobatannins, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides and anthraquinones were present in the extract. The lethal dose (LD50) was greater than 4000 mg/kg. The extract caused significant decrease in water intake in a dose dependent manner, significant increases were observed in liver enzymes analysed (AST, ALP, ALT) at 800 mg/kg after 28-day administration. In addition, congestion of central nucleus and sinusoids were observed in the liver at 800 mg/kg. G. carpinifolia leaf extract appear to be safe at doses below 800 mg/kg body weight. Preliminary results suggest promising alternatives for exploring therapeutic and pharmaceutical interest in G. carpinifolia leaf extract.

Keywords: Grewia carpinifolia, acute toxicity, phytochemical composition, histology

Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 0331-3026