In vitro and in vivo anti-trypanosomal potentials of Afrormosia laxiflora and Khaya senegalensis against Trypanosoma brucei brucei
Animal African trypanosomiasis (AAT) also known as Nagana is a resurgent disease in Africa. Medicinal plants are being used in less developed countries for the treatment of various diseases including trypanosomiasis, due to the high cost of currently available drugs. Most of these plants have been useful sources of treatment of various diseases based on information obtained from folk medicine but have not been scientifically certified. Here, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo anti-trypanosomal potentials of the methanol extract of Aformorsia laxiflora and Khaya senegalensis against T. b. brucei. Phytochemical screening as well as LD50 of the plant extracts was carried out following standard procedures. Parasitemia was monitored daily while Packed Cell Volume was determined at three time points (days 1, 4 and 7) during the course of the infection. The phytochemical analysis showed the presence of saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, antraquinones, resins and tanins. However, steriods/terpenoids were absent in K. senegalensis but present in A. laxiflora. The toxicity of methanol extract of both A. laxiflora and K. senegalensis was above 5000mg/kg body weight. Methanol extracts of A. laxiflora (leaves) and K. senegalensis (stem bark) showed promising trypanocidal potential in vitro against T. b. brucei at concentrations of 10, 15, 25mg/ml and 40 and 20mg/ml respectively. At these concentrations, both extracts immobilized the parasites within 55mins post-incubation. In general, A. laxiflora leaf extract demonstrated prophylactic activity against T. b. brucei in vivo at a dose of 500mg/Kg body weight particularly in group C animals where a delayed pre-patent period (6 days post-infection), extended survival (14 days post-infection) and significant (P<0.05) reduction in the parasite burden confirmed by an absence of anemia (PCV 47.00±0.8 %) was observed when compared to the infected untreated control group. K. senegalensis extract on the other hand did not show anti-trypanosomal activity in the treated groups (1, 2, and 3). Based on these observations, it was therefore deduced that the methanol extract of leaves of A. laxiflora possessed the ability to ameliorate the burden of the disease and could be a plausible candidate for drug development against the disease.
Keywords: Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Afromosia laxiflora, Khaya senegalensis, anti-trypanosomal, in vitro, in vivo