The Effect of Dimethylsulphoxide on the Topical Application of Diminazene Aceturate (Berenil) in an Experimnetal Trypanosoma Brucei Infection in Albino Rats
The difficulty associated with the intramuscular route of administration of diminazene aceturate coupled with tissue reactions often elicited at the injection site was the reason for the use of dimethylysulphoxide (DMSO), a potent non-polar solvent in enhancing the absorption of the drug topically in rats infected with Trypanosoma brucei. A total of 35 rats were divided into 7 groups (A – G) of five rats each. All the rats in Groups A - F were infected with x 103/µl of T. brucei intraperitoneally. Parasitaemia became evident by day 4 post-infection which corresponded with decline in packed cell volume. Groups A and B were treated respectively with graded doses (3.5 and 7.0mg/kg) of diminazene aceturate dissolved in DMSO while Groups D and E were treated with diminazene aceturate (3.5 and 7.0mg/kg) respectively without DMSO. The treatments were topical and commenced from day 8 post-infection. The efficacies of the treatments were compared against the standard intramuscular regime (Group C). Groups F and G served as infected and uninfected controls respectively. Diminazene aceturate dissolved in DMSO (Groups A and B) cleared parasitaemia and the associated haematological and pathological changes as in Group C. Meanwhile, the infection took its full course among rats treated without DMSO (Groups D and E) and the infected control (Group F). It was therefore, concluded that DMSO caused topical or percutaneous absorption of diminazene aceturate and that, the topical route may be adopted as an easier alternative for the administration of the drug in rats.
Keywords: Topical, diminazene aceturate, dimethylsulphoxide, Trypanosoma brucei, rats