Ants (Formicidae) as food for birds in southern Africa: opportunism or survival?
Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) are eaten by a number of bird species in southern Africa. Our database contained 545 species (excluding waterbirds and raptors), of which 179 species have been observed feeding on ants, or had ants in their stomachs. Ants are eaten by birds in all ecosystems, but the consumption of ants is disproportionately high in species that occur in arid ecosystems. The number of bird species eating ants increases in proportion to the number of bird species in any ecosystem, but it increases disproportionately with decreasing mean annual rainfall. There was a small, but not significant, difference in the proportion of ant-eating bird species between 502 resident species, of which 154 (30.6%) eat ants, and 47 nomadic species, of which 18 (38.2%) eat ants. Foraging behaviour and substrate, i.e. whether foraging in the air, from a perch or on the ground, significantly influenced the probability that ants would be included in the diet.