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Craniocervical junction abnormalities with atlantoaxial subluxation caused by ventral subluxation of C2 in a dog

Harumichi Itoh, Kazuhito Itamoto, Shotaro Eto, Tomoya Haraguchi, Shimpei Nishikawa, Kenji Tani, Yoshiki Itoh, Masato Hiyama, Toshie Iseri, Munekazu Nakaichi, Yasuho Taura

Abstract


Craniocervical junction abnormalities with atlantoaxial subluxation caused by ventral subluxation of C2 were diagnosed in a 6-month-old female Pomeranian with tetraplegia as a clinical sign. Lateral survey radiography of the neck with flexion revealed  atlantoaxial subluxation with ventral subluxation of C2. Computed tomography revealed absence of dens and atlanto-occipital overlapping. Magnetic resonance imaging showed compression of the spinal cord and indentation of caudal cerebellum. The diagnosis was Chiari-like malformation, atlantoaxial subluxation with ventral displacement of C2,  atlanto-occipital overlapping, and syringomyelia. The dog underwent foramen magnum decompression, dorsal laminectomy of C1, and ventral fixation of the atlantoaxial joint. Soon after the operation, voluntary movements of the legs were recovered. Finally, the dog could stand and walk without assistance. The dog had complicated malformations at the craniocervical junction but foramen magnum decompression and dorsal  laminectomy for Chiari-like malformation, and ventral fixation for atlantoaxial  subluxation resulted in an excellent clinical outcome.


Keywords: Atlantoaxial subluxation, Atlanto-occipital overlapping, Chiari-like  malformation, Craniocervical junction abnormalities, Foramen magnum  decompression.




http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ovj.v7i1.10
AJOL African Journals Online