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Spectrum of congenital heart diseases in children with Down Syndrome at Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto

U.M. Sani, K.O. Isezuo, U.M. Waziri, M.M. Ahmad, P.K. Ibitoye

Abstract


Objective: Congenital heart diseases (CHD) frequently occur in children with Down syndrome. A few studies in Nigeria have highlighted the pattern of CHD in such patients, but results are variable with no data from the study area for comparison. This study aims to determine the pattern of CHD among children with Down syndrome as seen at UDUTH, Sokoto

Methods: A prospective study conducted between 1st October 2011 and 31st April 2015. Subjects included all children with phenotypic features of Down syndrome (DS) who were seen at the Pediatric cardiology clinic and had echocardiography diagnosis of congenital heart diseases.

Results: Of the 41 cases of DS seen during the study period, 32 (78.0%) children aged 2 weeks to 22 months (Mean +SD = 5.6 ± 4.0 months) were diagnosed with CHD. Male to female ratio was 2.2:1. Atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) was the commonest CHD seen in 18 (56.3%) patients. Nine (28.1%) patients had isolated ventricular septal defect (VSD), three (9.4%) had VSD coexisting with atrial septal defect (ASD) while one (3.1%) patient each had isolated ASD and Fallot's tetralogy respectively. Only three (9.4%) patients had surgical closure abroad, with good postoperative outcome in two of the patients.

Conclusion: AVSD is the commonest CHD in our series, which is similar to previous reports. Increased access to definitive intervention is advocated since surgical outcome in such patients may be favorable.

Keywords: Down syndrome, congenital heart diseases, pattern, Sokoto




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